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Births, Infants and Children: an Econometric Portrait of Women and Children in India

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  • Borooah, Vani

Abstract

This paper undertakes an econometric analysis of the constellation of factors that serve to determine some outcomes with respect to demography and to schooling in India. These are: the numbers of pregnancies, live births and infant survivals to women and the chances of children being enrolled at school and, if enrolled, of continuing in school. The econometric estimates are based on unit record data from a survey - carried out by the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), New Delhi - of 33,000 rural households - encompassing 195,000 individuals - spread over 1,765 villages, in 195 districts, in 16 states of India. The study concludes that a broad spectrum of factors affect these outcomes. The literacy of women is important but so is the literacy of men. Infrastructure, in the form of safe drinking water and easy access to medical facilities, is important for infant survivals and, in the shape of easy access to schools, is important for school enrolment. Parental occupation matters for both infant survivals and schooling: children born to women who work as labourers are disadvantaged, relative to other children, in terms of their chances both of surviving infancy and, if they do survive, of receiving schooling. The number of siblings that a child has affects his/her schooling outcomes and gender, religion and region play an important role.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 19620.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Publication status: Published in Development & Change 1.34(2003): pp. 67-103
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:19620

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Keywords: Births; Infants; Children; india;

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References

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  1. Schultz, T. Paul, 1993. "Demand for children in low income countries," Handbook of Population and Family Economics, in: M. R. Rosenzweig & Stark, O. (ed.), Handbook of Population and Family Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 349-430 Elsevier.
  2. Vani Borooah, 2000. "The Welfare of Children in Central India: Econometric Analysis and Policy Simulation," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(3), pages 263-287.
  3. Basu, Kaushik & Foster, James E., 1998. "On measuring literacy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1997, The World Bank.
  4. Subbarao, Kalanidhi & Raney, Laura, 1992. "Social gains from female education : a cross-national study," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1045, The World Bank.
  5. T. Paul Schultz, 2001. "The Fertility Transition: Economic Explanations," Working Papers 833, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  6. Peter Jensen & Helena Skyt Nielsen, 1997. "Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 407-424.
  7. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Borooah, Vani K., 2004. "Gender bias among children in India in their diet and immunisation against disease," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 58(9), pages 1719-1731, May.
  2. Javier Escobal & Sonia Laszlo, 2005. "Measurement Error in Access to Markets," Development and Comp Systems 0503008, EconWPA.
  3. Virgilio Galdo & Bertha Briceño, 2005. "Evaluating the Impact on Child Mortality of a Water Supply and Sewerage Expansion in Quiro:Is Water Enough?," OVE Working Papers 0105, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
  4. Borooah, Vani K., 2004. "On the incidence of diarrhoea among young Indian children," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 119-138, March.
  5. Tarozzi, Alessandro, 2008. "Growth reference charts and the nutritional status of Indian children," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 455-468, December.
  6. Vani Borooah & Sriya Iyer, 2005. "Vidya, Veda, and Varna: The influence of religion and caste on education in rural India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(8), pages 1369-1404.
  7. Borooah, Vani K., 2004. "The politics of demography: a study of inter-community fertility differences in India," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 551-578, September.
  8. Borooah, Vani, 2009. "Maternal Literacy and Child Malnutrition in India," MPRA Paper 19833, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Vani K. Borooah, 2002. "The Role of Maternal Literacy in Reducing the Risk of Child Malnutrition in India," ICER Working Papers 31-2002, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
  10. Myriam Blin, 2006. "Export-Oriented Policies, Women’s Work Burden and Human Development in Mauritius," Working Papers 147, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK.
  11. Samuel Stroope, 2012. "Caste, Class, and Urbanization: The Shaping of Religious Community in Contemporary India," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 105(3), pages 499-518, February.

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