The Choice between Greenfield Investment and Cross-border Acquisition: A Real Option Approach
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to formalize the choice of market entry strategy for an individual multinational enterprise (MNE) from a dynamic perspective. It is argued that incorporating a suitable treatment of irreversibility, uncertainty and flexibility related to a MNEs investment decision gives further insights to the choice of cross-border acquisitions to greenfield investment as the preferred entry mode. In most cases, the initial entry strategy serves as a platform allowing the firm to make subsequent investments to exploit host-country advantages and capabilities.We allowfor this by taking a two-step expansion strategy explicitly into account. The evolutionary process of the value of the foreign direct investment includes two stochastic elements as well as the timing that triggers the transition from export to foreign direct investment. The results suggest that uncertainty and future investment opportunities play an important role when it comes to transit from export to the first phase of the foreign direct investment commitment as well as have an impact on the choice of entry strategy.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 18819.
Date of creation: 2005
Date of revision:
Foreign direct investment; Multinational enterprise; Sequential investments; Entry mode; Greenfield investment; Cross-border acquisition;
Other versions of this item:
- Gilroy, Bernard Michael & Lukas, Elmar, 2006. "The choice between greenfield investment and cross-border acquisition: A real option approach," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 447-465, July.
- G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
- F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
- O32 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
- D92 - Microeconomics - - Intertemporal Choice - - - Intertemporal Firm Choice, Investment, Capacity, and Financing
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
- John H Dunning, 1980. "Towards an Eclectic Theory of International Production: Some Empirical Tests," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 11(1), pages 9-31, March.
- Baldwin, Richard & Krugman, Paul, 1989.
"Persistent Trade Effects of Large Exchange Rate Shocks,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 104(4), pages 635-54, November.
- Richard Baldwin & Paul R. Krugman, 1986. "Persistent Trade Effects of Large Exchage Rate Shocks," NBER Working Papers 2017, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Geske, Robert, 1979. "The valuation of compound options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 63-81, March.
- Gunther Friedl, 2002. "Sequential Investment And Time To Build," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 54(1), pages 56-79, January.
- Bruce Kogut, 1991. "Joint Ventures and the Option to Expand and Acquire," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(1), pages 19-33, January.
- Pennings, Enrico & Lint, Onno, 2000. "Market entry, phased rollout or abandonment? A real option approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 124(1), pages 125-138, July.
- Udo Broll & Bernhard Eckwert, 1999. "Exchange Rate Volatility and International Trade," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(1), pages 178-185, July.
- McDonald, Robert & Siegel, Daniel, 1986. "The Value of Waiting to Invest," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(4), pages 707-27, November.
- Andersson, Thomas & Svensson, Roger, 1994. " Entry Modes for Direct Investment Determined by the Composition of Firm-Specific Skills," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 96(4), pages 551-60.
- Hirsch, Seev, 1976. "An International Trade and Investment Theory of the Firm," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(2), pages 258-70, July.
- Dixit, A., 1988.
"Entry And Exit Decisions Under Uncertainty,"
91, Princeton, Department of Economics - Financial Research Center.
- Weijian Shan & Jaeyong Song, 1997. "Foreign Direct Investment and the Sourcing of Technological Advantage: Evidence from the Biotechnology Industry," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(2), pages 267-284, June.
- Buckley, Peter J & Casson, Mark, 1981. "The Optimal Timing of a Foreign Direct Investment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(361), pages 75-87, March.
- Hennart, J.-F. & Park, Y.R., 1993.
"Greenfield vs. Acquisition : the strategy of Japanes investors in the United states,"
Open Access publications from Tilburg University
urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-174430, Tilburg University.
- Jean-François Hennart & Young-Ryeol Park, 1993. "Greenfield vs. Acquisition: The Strategy of Japanese Investors in the United States," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(9), pages 1054-1070, September.
- Buckley, Adrian & Tse, Kalun, 1996. "Real operating options and foreign direct investment: A synthetic approach," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 304-314, June.
- Clark, Ephraim, 1997. "Valuing political risk," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 477-490, June.
- Peter J Buckley & Mark C Casson, 1998. "Models of the Multinational Enterprise," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(1), pages 21-44, March.
- Yigang Pan & David K Tse, 2000. "The Hierarchical Model of Market Entry Modes," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(4), pages 535-554, December.
- Pennings, Enrico & Sleuwaegen, Leo, 2000. "The Choice and Timing of Foreign Market Entry under Uncertainty," CEPR Discussion Papers 2470, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Naudé, Wim & Gries, Thomas & Bilkic, Natasa, 2013. "Firm-Level Heterogeneity and the Decision to Export: A Real Option Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 7346, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Lukas, Elmar, 2007. "Dynamic market entry and the value of flexibility in transitional international joint ventures," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 91-110.
- Gilroy, Bernard Michael & Lukas, Elmar, 2005.
"Standortoptionen multinationaler Unternehmen: Eine steuerliche Betrachtung
[Location options of multinational enterprises: A fiscal examination]," MPRA Paper 21211, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Dailami, Mansoor & Kurlat, Sergio & Lim, Jamus Jerome, 2012.
"Bilateral M&A activity from the global south,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
5953, The World Bank.
- Dailami, Mansoor & Kurlat, Sergio & Lim, Jamus Jerome, 2012. "Bilateral M&A activity from the Global South," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 345-364.
- Lehner, Maria, 2008. "Entry Mode Choice of Multinational Banks," Discussion Papers in Economics 8222, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Elmar Lukas, 2005. "Sequential International Joint-Ventures and the Option to Choose," International Finance 0504007, EconWPA, revised 15 Nov 2005.
- Lukas, Elmar, 2013. "Modeling the transitional dynamics of international joint venture policies: An option pricing approach," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 21-36.
- Canabal, Anne & White III, George O., 2008. "Entry mode research: Past and future," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 267-284, June.
- Broll, Udo & Gilroy, B. Michael & Lukas, Elmar, 2008. "Export production under exchange rate uncertainty," Dresden Discussion Paper Series in Economics 08/08, Dresden University of Technology, Faculty of Business and Economics, Department of Economics.
- Lehner, Maria, 2009. "Entry mode choice of multinational banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1781-1792, October.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.