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The Gender Differences in School Enrolment and Returns to Education in Pakistan

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  • Madeeha Gohar Qureshi

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

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    Abstract

    In this study attempt has been made to link the gender differences in parental resource allocation in demand for education at primary, secondary and tertiary level of education to gender differences in returns to education in these respective categories in Pakistan. The hypothesis was that if we find that labour market rewards male more than female then this may be able to give a plausible explanation of why households invest much less in daughter’s education. However our results suggest otherwise that there is under investment in females education at all levels even though returns to education are much higher for females than males. One possible explanation could be that even though private rate of return to time spent in school than in labour market is higher for a female compared to male but the part of return that goes to parents are much lower for daughters than sons in Pakistan due to dependence of parents on their son for old age support. The key factor from policy point of view that can reduce such discriminatory attitude towards female enrolment in a household are found to be education of parents especially mother’s education. Both father’s and mother’s education are found to have significant positive impact on education of both sons and daughters. However mother’s education compared to father has much more impact in terms of magnitude at all levels of education and especially the role is more pronounced for daughters.

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    File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/Working%20Paper/WorkingPaper-84.pdf
    File Function: First Version, 2012
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its series PIDE-Working Papers with number 2012:84.

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    Length: 28 pages
    Date of creation: 2012
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:pid:wpaper:2012:84

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    Keywords: Enrolment Rates; Rates of Return; Gender; Pakistan;

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    References

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    1. Zafar Mueen Nasir, 1998. "Determinants of Personal Earnings in Pakistan: Findings from the Labour Force Survey 1993-94," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(3), pages 251-274.
    2. Gary S. Becker, 1981. "A Treatise on the Family," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck81-1.
    3. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
    4. Becker, Gary S & Tomes, Nigel, 1976. "Child Endowments and the Quantity and Quality of Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(4), pages S143-62, August.
    5. Zafar Mueen Nasir, 2002. "Returns to Human Capital in Pakistan: A Gender Disaggregated Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(1), pages 1-28.
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