Rural to Urban Migration in Pakistan: The Gender Perspective
AbstractThis paper analyses gender dimensions in rural to urban migration (age 10 years and above) in Pakistan. The study is based on Labour Force Surveys 1996-2006. The findings of the study show that overtime internal migration (age 10 years and above) remained unchanged. Female migrants dominate in internal migration (age 10 years and above). In case of female migration, marriage plays a vital role. Further the direction of migration reveals that over time in internal migration the share of rural to urban migration has increased while urban to urban migration declined, however, the share of urban to urban migration remains highest in internal migration. Females are dominating in recent rural to urban move compared to long term and total rural to urban migration. Gender composition of intra-provincial move of rural to urban migration reveals that in all provinces female migrants are dominated. Further, the trend of intra and inter provincial move indicates that in all provinces long distance movement of females has increased. Not only the share of female migrant in rural to urban migration increased but there seems to be an increasing trend in family migration to cities. This seems to be due to the changes in agrarian structure and rural economy particularly increased in landless households, declined in share cropping and rise in small land holding. In addition to this , the trend in intra and inter-provincial move reveals that except in province of NWFP in all three provinces migration to long distance has an upward trend. Gender composition reveals that in all these three provinces the proportion of both male and female migrants increased over time.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its series PIDE-Working Papers with number 2010:56.
Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Rural to Urban Migration; Agrarian Structure;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
- Q00 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - General
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Aliya H. Khan & Lubna Shehnaz, 2000. "Determinants of Internal Migration in Pakistan: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey, 1996-97," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 695-712.
- Andrabi, Tahir & Das, Jishnu & Khwaja, Asim Ijaz, 2013.
"Students today, teachers tomorrow: Identifying constraints on the provision of education,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 1-14.
- Andrabi, Tahir & Das, Jishnu & Khwaja, Asim Ijaz, 2011. "Students today, teachers tomorrow ? identifying constraints on the provision of Education," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5674, The World Bank.
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