A better indicator of standards of living: The Gross National Disposable Income
AbstractMeasuring the standards of living is a fundamental concern in economics and particularly in the eld of development. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the most widely accepted measure for a country's economic size and performance, but in recent years the Gross National Income (GNI) has gained greater importance as a better measure for the monetary resources actually available to those who live in a country. However, this paper shows that - especially in developing countries - GNI is not the best indicator for people's living standards, as it does not record the so-called unilateral transfers (foreign aid and workers' remittances among others) and, therefore, the secondary distribution of income that takes place worldwide. In the last decades unilateral transfers - and most importantly workers' remittances - have been among the largest types of income ows entering developing countries thanks to the remarkable increase in the mobility of people. This has had a signi cant impact on these populations' purchasing power that cannot be neglected. Hence, the Gross National Disposable Income (GNDI), which includes both net factor income (captured by the GNI) and unilateral transfers, is to be considered a better tool to assess the resources at a population's disposal for consumption and saving. Yet, GNDI is rarely available in the major international reports and datasets and often confused in GNI in common practice. This paper tries to contribute to closing this void and includes a table in which GNDI is calculated for all countries listed in the World Bank dataset.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Management in its series DEM Working Papers Series with number 062.
Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2013
Date of revision:
National Income; Balance of Payments; Remittances;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F60 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - General
- O11 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Smith, Adam, 1776. "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations," History of Economic Thought Books, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, number smith1776.
- Nigel Driffield & Chris Jones, 2013. "Impact of FDI, ODA and Migrant Remittances on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: A Systems Approach," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 25(2), pages 173-196, April.
- Milorad Kovacevic, 2010. "Review of HDI Critiques and Potential Improvements," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) HDRP-2010-33, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
- Ibrahim Sirkeci & Jeffrey H. Cohen & Dilip Ratha, 2012. "Migration and Remittances during the Global Financial Crisis and Beyond," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13092, March.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alice Albonico).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.