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Habilidades No Cognitivas y Brecha de Género Salarial en el Perú

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  • Pablo Lavado

    ()
    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Luciana Velarde

    ()
    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Gustavo Yamada

    ()
    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

Abstract

En los últimos años, la literatura ha analizado la relación entre las habilidades cognitivas y no cognitivas y los resultados del mercado laboral. Mas aún, se ha estudiado la correlación entre diferencias en estas habilidades y diferencias en salarios entre hombres y mujeres. No obstante, la mayoría de los estudios en torno al tema se ha enfocado en países desarrollados. El principal objetivo de este estudio es analizar el rol de las habilidades cognitivas y no cognitivas en la brecha salarial de género en el Perú. Para ello, proponemos utilizar información longitudinal de medidas de habilidad para estimar componentes inobservables (latentes) de ambas habilidades y analizar el rol de dichos componentes en el salario. Los resultados indican que existe una brecha salarial de género signicativa en el Perú y que la misma puede ser explicada por diferencias en el retorno de habilidades cognitivas latentes y por diferencias en la dotación de habilidades no cognitivas latentes. Luego de estimar un modelo conjunto de educación, empleo, ocupación y salarios, se observa que aún cuando las habilidades latentes explican la brecha de salarios, las mismas son más importantes para explicar la diferencia en la decisión de ocupación tomada entre hombres y mujeres. Recently there has been growing interest in the relationship between cognitive and non cognitive abilities and labor market outcomes. A large literature provides evidence on the positive connection between gaps in abilities and gaps in wages between men and women. However, attention is focused on developed countries. The main objective of this paper is to identify latent abilities and explore their role in the gender wage gap in Peru. The main identication strategy relies on exploiting panel data information on test scores and arguing that time dependence across measures is due to latent abilities. Results show a signicant gender wage gap in Peru and that even though when accounting for measured abilities dierences in non cognitive abilities seem irrelevant, when accounting for diferences in actual latent ability non cognitive abilities account for important inter-gender dierences in the endowment and returns of abilities. Moreover, inter-gender dierences in latent abilities play an important role not only in wage proles, but in schooling, employment and occupation decisions.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico in its series Working Papers with number 13-16.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2013
Date of revision: Dec 2013
Handle: RePEc:pai:wpaper:13-16

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Web page: http://www.up.edu.pe/
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Keywords: Habilidades No Cognitivas Habilidades Latentes Brecha Salarial Género Laboral Mercado Hombre Mujer Perú País En Desarrollo Wage Gap Gener Ocupation Non Cognitive Abilities Peru;

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  1. Francisco Galarza & Gustavo Yamada, 2011. "Labor Market Discrimination in Lima, Peru: Evidence from a Field Experiment," Working Papers 14-01, Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico, revised Dec 2011.
  2. Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman & Lance Lochner & Dimitriy V. Masterov, 2005. "Interpreting the Evidence on Life Cycle Skill Formation," NBER Working Papers 11331, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. David Bravo & Claudia Sanhueza & Sergio Urzua, 2008. "Ability, Schooling Choices and Gender Labor Market Discrimination: Evidence for Chile," Research Department Publications 3258, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  4. Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. & Tan, Michelle, 2009. "Noncognitive Skills, Occupational Attainment, and Relative Wages," IZA Discussion Papers 4289, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  6. Joseph A Ritter & Lowell J Taylor, 2011. "Racial Disparity in Unemployment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(1), pages 30-42, February.
  7. Nicole M. Fortin, 2008. "The Gender Wage Gap among Young Adults in the United States: The Importance of Money versus People," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
  8. Flavio Cunha & James Heckman, 2007. "The Technology of Skill Formation," NBER Working Papers 12840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Helmers, Christian & Patnam, Manasa, 2011. "The formation and evolution of childhood skill acquisition: Evidence from India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 252-266, July.
  10. Wayne A. Grove & Andrew Hussey & Michael Jetter, 2011. "The Gender Pay Gap Beyond Human Capital: Heterogeneity in Noncognitive Skills and in Labor Market Tastes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 46(4), pages 827-874.
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