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¿Existe discriminación en el mercado laboral de Lima Metropolitana? Un análisis experimental

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Author Info

  • Francisco Galarza

    ()
    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Liuba Kogan

    ()
    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Gustavo Yamada

    ()
    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

Abstract

"En este documento,discutimos los resultados de nuestro estudio experimental, diseñado para identificar la existencia de discriminación en el mercado laboral de Lima Metropolitana. Este es un estudio pionero en el Perú en la obtención de evidencia estadística sólida sobre la existencia (o inexistencia) de discriminación en el mercado laboral, en términos de dos variables: apellidos de origen y sexo. A lo largo de varios meses, enviamos un total de 4820 currículos de vida (CV) ficticios como respuesta a vacantes laborales reales para tres tipos de categorías de empleos (profesionales, técnicos y no calificados), publicadas en el diario El Comercio. Para cada vacante laboral se enviaron cuatro CV con foto que mostrabanun capital humano similar en términos de educación y experiencia laboral, y solo variaron en el apellido de origen (andino o blanco) y el sexo (mujer u hombre). Usando la tasa de respuestas de los empleadores a nuestros postulantes ficticios como indicador para medir la discriminación (pues aquella no debería diferir estadísticamente entre nuestros cuatro tipos de postulantes), analizamos las diferencias en dichas tasas usando pruebas estadísticas de diferencias de medias y luego estimaciones econométricas. Las fotos incluidas en los CV fueron rankeadas en términos de belleza, de manera que también podemos analizar si la belleza tiene algún efecto sobre las tasas de respuesta. Sin controlar por la belleza de nuestros postulantes, encontramos que existe discriminación estadística en función del sexo (hombres reciben 15% más de llamadas que mujeres) y el apellido de origen (blancos reciben 45% más de llamadas que andinos) para todo el conjunto de datos. La magnitud de la discriminación por apellidos se reduce en un tercio cuando controlamos por la belleza de los postulantes."

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File URL: http://www.up.edu.pe/ciup/SiteAssets/Lists/JER_Jerarquia/EditForm/Existe%20discriminaci%C3%B3n%20en%20el%20mercado%20laboral%20de%20Lima%20Metropolitana.%20Un%20an%C3%A1lisis%20experimental.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico in its series Working Papers with number 11-15.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2011
Date of revision: Dec 2011
Handle: RePEc:pai:wpaper:11-15

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Web page: http://www.up.edu.pe/
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Related research

Keywords: Mercado laboral; Discriminación; Experimentos; Lima;

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References

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  1. Moreno, Martin & Nopo, Hugo & Saavedra, Jaime & Torero, Maximo, 2004. "Gender and Racial Discrimination in Hiring: A Pseudo Audit Study for Three Selected Occupations in Metropolitan Lima," IZA Discussion Papers 979, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. John List, 2004. "The nature and extent of discrimination in the marketplace: Evidence from the field," Natural Field Experiments 00299, The Field Experiments Website.
  3. Juan Pablo Atal & Hugo R. Ñopo & Natalia Winder, 2009. "New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America," IDB Publications 5398, Inter-American Development Bank.
  4. Bradley J. Ruffle & Ze’ev Shtudiner, 2010. "Are Good-Looking People More Employable?," Working Papers 1006, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Economics.
  5. Mobius, Markus & Rosenblat, Tanya, 2010. "Why Beauty Matters," Staff General Research Papers 32112, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  6. Petra Moser, 2008. "An Empirical Test of Taste-based Discrimination Changes in Ethnic Preferences and their Effect on Admissions to the NYSE during World War I," NBER Working Papers 14003, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Altonji, Joseph G. & Blank, Rebecca M., 1999. "Race and gender in the labor market," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 48, pages 3143-3259 Elsevier.
  8. Carlsson, Magnus & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2006. "Evidence of Ethnic Discrimination in the Swedish Labor Market Using Experimental Data," IZA Discussion Papers 2281, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Alejandro Gaviria & Carlos Medina & María del Mar Palau, 2007. "Las Consecuencias Económicas De Un Nombre Atípico. El Caso Colombiano," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 003108, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  10. Nopo, Hugo & Atal, Juan Pablo & Winder, Natalia, 2010. "New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America," IZA Discussion Papers 5085, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Kaas, Leo & Manger, Christian, 2010. "Ethnic Discrimination in Germany's Labour Market: A Field Experiment," IZA Discussion Papers 4741, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Dennis J. Aigner & Glen G. Cain, 1977. "Statistical theories of discrimination in labor markets," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(2), pages 175-187, January.
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