Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisting intra-household allocation of education expenditure
AbstractThis paper revisits the issue of the intra-household of education with the recently available India Human Development Survey which refers to 2005 and covers both urban and rural areas.� In addition to the traditional Engel method, the paper utilizes a Hurdle model to disentangle the decision to enroll (incur any educational expenditure) and the decision of how much to spend on education, conditional on enrolling.� Finally the paper also uses household fixed effects to examine whether any gender bias is a within-household phenomenon.� The paper finds that the traditional Engel method often fails to pick up gender bias where it exists not only because of the aggregation of data at the household-level but also because of aggregation of the two decisions in which gender can have opposite signs.� It is found that pro-male gender bias exists in the primary school age group for several states but that the incidence of gender bias increases with age - it is greater in the middle school age group (10-14 years) and greater still in the secondary school age group (15-19 years).� However, gender discrimination in the secondary school age group 15-19 takes place mainly through the decision to enroll boys and not girls, and not through differential expenditure on girls and boys.� The results also suggest that the extent of pro-male gender bias in educational expenditure is substantially greater in rural than in urban areas.� Finally, our results suggest that an important mechanism through which households spend less on girls than boys is by sending sons to fee-charging private schools and daughters to the fee-free government-funded schools.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number WPS/2011-10.
Date of creation: 01 May 2011
Date of revision:
Gender bias; Educational expenditure; Engel curve; Hurdle model; India;
Other versions of this item:
- Azam, Mehtabul & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2013. "Are Girls the Fairer Sex in India? Revisiting Intra-Household Allocation of Education Expenditure," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 143-164.
- Mehtabul Azam & Geeta Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," CSAE Working Paper Series 2011-10, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Azam, Mehtabul & Kingdon, Geeta, 2011. "Are Girls the Fairer Sex in India? Revisiting Intra-Household Allocation of Education Expenditure," IZA Discussion Papers 5706, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Mehtabul Azam & Geeta Kingdon, 2011. "Are girls the fairer sex in India? Revisiting intra-household allocation of education expenditure," DoQSS Working Papers 11-03, Department of Quantitative Social Science - Institute of Education, University of London.
- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
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