Votes and Violence: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Nigeria
AbstractFollowing the wave of democratization during the 1990s, elections are now common in low-income societies.� However, these elections are frequently flawed.� We investigate the Nigerian general election of 2007, which is to date the largest election held in Africa and one seriously marred by violence.� We designed and conducted a nationwide field experiment based on randomized anti-violence grassroots campaigning.� We find direct effects on violence outcomes from exploring both subject-surveying and independent data sources.� Crucially, we establish that voter intimidation is effective in reducing voter turnout, and that the violence was systematically dissociated from incumbents.� We suggest that incumbents have a comparative advantage in alternative strategies, vote buying and ballot fraud.� Voter intimidation may be a strategy of the weak analogous to terrorism.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number WPS/2008-16.
Date of creation: 01 Jun 2008
Date of revision:
Violence; Conflict; Electoral Politics; Political Economy; Randomized Experiment; Field Experiment; Nigeria; West Africa;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
- D74 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances
- O55 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
- P16 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Political Economy of Capitalism
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- Stefan Dercon & Roxana Gutierrez-Romero, 2010. "Triggers and Characteristics of the 2007 Kenyan Electoral Violence," Economics Series Working Papers CSAE WPS/2010-12, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
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