Genocide and land scarcity: Can Rwandan rural households manage?
AbstractDuring the nineties, Rwandan households had to cope with severe shocks of war and genocide. In addition, two major structural problems in Rwanda, land scarcity and declining soil fertility, remain unsolved. How do Rwandan households manage? This is an important question from a development perspective, but also from a security perspective, because uneven development increases the risk of peace collapse. To find an answer to our question, we study welfare gains and losses of a sample of 189 Rwandan rural households over the period 1990-2002. In our sample, many households were severely affected by the genocide. In addition, poverty and inequality increased. Moreover, we observe a lot of income mobility. Only one quarter of the households remained in the same income quintile over time. Especially the households headed by widows and prisoner`s wives moved downward in the income distribution. Households who reduced their dependence on subsistence agriculture moved upward.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number WPS/2004-15.
Date of creation: 01 Jun 2004
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Marijke Verpoorten & Lode Berlage, 2004. "Genocide and land scarcity: Can Rwandan rural households manage?," CSAE Working Paper Series 2004-15, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Marijke Verpoorten & Lode Berlage, 2004. "Genocide and Land Scarcity: Can Rwandan Rural Households Manage?," Development and Comp Systems 0409061, EconWPA.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Stefan Dercon & Pramila Krishnan, 2000. "Vulnerability, seasonality and poverty in Ethiopia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 25-53.
- Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2002.
"Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing,"
United Kingdom Stata Users' Group Meetings 2003
02, Stata Users Group.
- Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2003. "Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(1), pages 1-31, March.
- Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2002. "Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 545, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 14 Feb 2003.
- Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2002. "Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing," North American Stata Users' Group Meetings 2003 05, Stata Users Group.
- Swaminathan, Madhura, 1991. "Measuring Mobility in Wealth: Some Estimates from a South Indian Village," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 53(2), pages 171-83, May.
- John Dreze & Peter Lanjouw & Nicholas Stern, 1992. "Economic Mobility and Agricultural Labour in Rural India: A Case Study," Indian Economic Review, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 27, pages 25-54.
- Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 1998. "Transient Poverty in Postreform Rural China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 338-357, June.
- Lanjouw, Peter & Stern, Nicholas, 1991. "Poverty in Palanpur," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 5(1), pages 23-55, January.
- Neil McCulloch & Bob Baulch, 2000. "Simulating the Impact of Policy upon Chronic and Transitory Poverty in Rural Pakistan," Econometrics 0004003, EconWPA.
- Randolph, Susan & Trzcinski, Eileen, 1989. "Relative earnings mobility in a third world country," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 513-524, April.
- Glewwe, Paul & Hall, Gillette, 1998. "Are some groups more vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks than others? Hypothesis tests based on panel data from Peru," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 181-206, June.
- Chen, Shaohua & Ravallion, Martin, 1996. "Data in transition: Assessing rural living standards in Southern China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 23-56.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Christiaan Grootaert & Ravi Kanbur & Gi-Taik Oh, 1997. "The dynamics of welfare gains and losses: An African case study," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(5), pages 635-657.
- Breusch, T S & Pagan, A R, 1979. "A Simple Test for Heteroscedasticity and Random Coefficient Variation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1287-94, September.
- Clay, Daniel C., 1996. "Fighting an Uphill Battle: Population Pressure and Declining Land Productivity in Rwanda," Food Security International Development Working Papers 54692, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Ravallion, Martin, 1988. "Expected Poverty under Risk-Induced Welfare Variability," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(393), pages 1171-82, December.
- Trzcinski, Eileen & Randolph, Susan, 1991. "Human Capital Investments and Relative Earnings Mobility: The Role of Education, Training, Migration, and Job Search," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(1), pages 153-68, October.
- John Maluccio & Lawrence Haddad & Julian May, 2000. "Social capital and household welfare in South Africa, 1993-98," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 54-81.
- Diao, Xinshen & Thurlow, James & Benin, Samuel & Fan, Shenggen, 2012.
"Strategies and priorities for African agriculture: Economywide perspectives from country studies,"
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), number Xinshen Diao, March.
- Diao, Xinshen & Thurlow, James & Benin, Samuel & Fan, Shenggen, 2012. "Strategies and priorities for African agriculture: Economywide perspectives from country studies," Research reports Xinshen Diao, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Caroline Wise).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.