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An Inquiry into the Use of Illegal Electoral Practices and Effects of Political Violence

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  • Roxana Gutierrez-Romero

Abstract

This article investigates whether vote-buying and the instigation of violence in the disputed 2007 Kenyan elections were strategically motivated, and whether those affected by electoral violence changed their views towards ethno-politics and the use of violence.� To answer these questions, a panel survey conducted before and after the elections is combined with external indicators of electoral violence.� We find that political parties targeted vote-buying towards specific groups to weaken the support of their political rivals and to mobilize their own supporters.� Furthermore, parties instigated violence strategically in areas where they were less likely to win.� Although the victims of violence would prefer that parties are no longer allowed to organize in ethnic or religious lines, they are more likely to identify in ethnic terms, support the use of violence and avoid relying on the police to resolve disputes.� The overall findings suggest an increased risk of electoral-violence reoccurring.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number WPF/2012-16.

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Date of creation: 30 Oct 2012
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Handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:wpf/2012-16

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Keywords: Political competition; electoral violence; vote-buying; election fraud; ethnic identity; Kenya;

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References

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  1. Laia Balcells, 2008. "Rivalry and Revenge: Making Sense of Violence against Civilians in Conventional Civil Wars," HiCN Working Papers 51, Households in Conflict Network.
  2. Dercon, Stefan & Gutiérrez-Romero, Roxana, 2012. "Triggers and Characteristics of the 2007 Kenyan Electoral Violence," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 731-744.
  3. Ashish Chaturvedi, 2005. "Rigging elections with violence," Public Choice, Springer, Springer, vol. 125(1), pages 189-202, July.
  4. Thad Dunning, 2011. "Fighting and Voting: Violent Conflict and Electoral Politics," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), Peace Science Society (International), vol. 55(3), pages 327-339, June.
  5. Christopher Ksoll & Rocco Macchiavello & Ameet Morjaria, 2009. "Guns and Roses: The Impact of the Kenyan Post-Election Violence on Flower Exporting Firms," CSAE Working Paper Series 2009-06, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  6. Paul Collier & Dominic Rohner, 2008. "Democracy, Development, and Conflict," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 6(2-3), pages 531-540, 04-05.
  7. Pedro C. Vicente & Leonard Wantchekon, 2009. "Clientelism and vote buying: lessons from field experiments in African elections," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(2), pages 292-305, Summer.
  8. Carlos Scartascini & Mariano Tommasi & Fabiana Velasques de Paula Machado, 2009. "Political Institutions and Street Protests in Latin America," IDB Publications 5418, Inter-American Development Bank.
  9. Paul Collier & Pedro C Vicente, 2008. "Votes and Violence: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Nigeria," CSAE Working Paper Series 2008-16, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  10. Oecd, 2008. "Country Review: Chinese Taipei," OECD Journal: Competition Law and Policy, OECD Publishing, OECD Publishing, vol. 10(2), pages 127-165.
  11. Paul Collier & Pedro Vicente, 2012. "Violence, bribery, and fraud: the political economy of elections in Sub-Saharan Africa," Public Choice, Springer, Springer, vol. 153(1), pages 117-147, October.
  12. Takashi Yamano & Yuki Tanaka & Raphael Gitau, 2010. "Haki Yetu (It’s Our Right): Determinants of Post-Election Violence in Kenya," GRIPS Discussion Papers 10-20, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
  13. Michael Bratton & Mwangi S. Kimenyi, 2008. "Voting in Kenya: Putting Ethnicity in Perspective," Working papers, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics 2008-09, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
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Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Political Competition: Research on Kenya Post-Election Violence
    by UDADISI in UDADISI on 2012-12-11 18:20:00
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Cited by:
  1. Isaksson, Ann-Sofie & Bigsten, Arne, 2014. "Clientelism and ethnic divisions," Working Papers in Economics, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics 598, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.

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