The Quality of School Provision in Pakistan: Are Girls Worse Off?
AbstractRecent evidence from Pakistan points to significant pro-male bias within households in the allocation of education expenditures. This raises two important questions: Is less spent on enrolled girls than boys through differential school-type choice for the two sexes, for example through a greater likelihood of sending boys to fee-charging private schools? And, if indeed this is the case, are girls thereby condemned to lower quality schooling, on average, than boys? By asking these questions, this paper makes three contributions to the literature. Firstly, this is one of a very few studies in Pakistan to explore the question of the relative effectiveness of public and private schools despite there being an unprecedented expansion of fee-charging private schools in the last two decades. Secondly, unlike existing papers which focus on primary schooling, this study looks at potential learning gaps by school-type for students in their last year of middle school (grade 8), very near their transition to secondary schooling. Thirdly, it exploits unique, purposively-collected data from government and private school students and thus, in estimating achievement production functions, is able to control for a number of variables typically `unobserved` by researchers. The findings reveal that boys are indeed more likely to be sent to private schools than girls within the household, so that differential school-type choice is an important channel of differential treatment against girls. Private schools are also found to be of better quality - they are more effective than government schools in imparting mathematics and literacy skills. Girls lose out vis a vis boys in terms not only of lower within-household educational expenditures but also in terms of the quality of schooling accessed.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number GPRG-WPS-066.
Date of creation: 01 Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Government/Private Schools; Achievement; Middle-schools; School Quality; Pakistan;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Aslam, Monazza & Kingdon, Geeta, 2011.
"What can teachers do to raise pupil achievement?,"
Economics of Education Review,
Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 559-574, June.
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2007. "What can Teachers do to Raise Pupil Achievement?," CSAE Working Paper Series 2007-14, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2007. "What can Teachers do to Raise Pupil Achievement?," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2007-14, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Mohammad Niaz Asadullah, .
"Returns to Private and Public Education in Bangladesh and Pakistan: A Comparative Analysis,"
QEH Working Papers
qehwps167, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Asadullah, M. Niaz, 2009. "Returns to private and public education in Bangladesh and Pakistan: A comparative analysis," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 77-86, January.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Caroline Wise).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.