Parental Education and Child Health - Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan
AbstractThis study investigates the relationship between parental schooling on the one hand, and child health outcomes (height and weight) and parental health-seeking behaviour (immunisation status of children), on the other.� While establishing a correlational link between parental schooling and child health is relatively straightforward, confirming a causal relationship is more complex.� Using unique data from Pakistan, we aim to understand the mechanisms through which parental schooling promotes better child health and health-seeking behaviour.� The following 'pathways' are investigated: educated parents' greater household income, exposure to media, literacy, labour market participation, health knowledge and the extent of maternal empowerment within the home.� We find that while father's education is positively associated with the 'one-off' immunisation decision, mother's education is more critically associated with longer term health outcomes in OLS equations.� Instrumental variable (IV) estimates suggest that father's health knowledge is most positively associated with immunisation decisions while mother's health knowledge and her empowerment within the home are the channels through which her education impacts her child's height and weight respectively.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number CSAE WPS/2010-16.
Date of creation: 01 Jun 2010
Date of revision:
Parental schooling; mother's health knowledge; father's health knowledge; media exposure; maternal empowerment; child health; immunisation; Pakistan;
Other versions of this item:
- Aslam, Monazza & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2012. "Parental Education and Child Health—Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 2014-2032.
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2010. "Parental Education and Child Health - Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan," CSAE Working Paper Series 2010-16, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Behrman, Jere R. & Deolalikar, Anil B., 1988. "Health and nutrition," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 631-711 Elsevier.
- Monazza Aslam, 2009. "Education Gender Gaps in Pakistan: Is the Labor Market to Blame?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(4), pages 747-784, 07.
- Christiaensen, Luc & Alderman, Harold, 2004. "Child Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Can Maternal Knowledge Augment the Role of Income?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(2), pages 287-312, January.
- Barrera, Albino, 1990. "The role of maternal schooling and its interaction with public health programs in child health production," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 69-91, January.
- Thomas, Duncan & Strauss, John, 1992.
"Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 301-331, October.
- Thomas, D. & Strauss, J., 1990. "Prices, Infrastructure, Household Charasteristics And Child Height," Papers 602, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Michael Grossman, 2005.
"Education and Nonmarket Outcomes,"
NBER Working Papers
11582, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Case, Anne & Fertig, Angela & Paxson, Christina, 2005.
"The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 365-389, March.
- Anne Case & Angela Fertig & Christina Paxson, 2004. "The Lasting Impact of Childhood Health and Circumstance," Working Papers 246, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- Paul Glewwe, 1999. "Why Does Mother's Schooling Raise Child Health in Developing Countries? Evidence from Morocco," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(1), pages 124-159.
- Monazza Aslam, 2009. "The relative effectiveness of government and private schools in Pakistan: are girls worse off?," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 329-354.
- Steven A. Block, 2007. "Maternal nutrition knowledge versus schooling as determinants of child micronutrient status," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(2), pages 330-353, April.
- Janet Currie & Brigitte C. Madrian, 1998.
"Health, Health Insurance and the Labor Market,"
JCPR Working Papers
27, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Handa, Sudhanshu, 1999. "Maternal Education and Child Height," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(2), pages 421-39, January.
- Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman, 2008. "Formulating, Identifying and Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
- Phil Oreopoulos & Mark Stabile & Randy Walld & Leslie Roos, 2006.
"Short, Medium, and Long Term Consequences of Poor Infant Health: An Analysis using Siblings and Twins,"
NBER Working Papers
11998, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Philip Oreopoulos & Mark Stabile & Randy Walld & Leslie L. Roos, 2008. "Short-, Medium-, and Long-Term Consequences of Poor Infant Health: An Analysis Using Siblings and Twins," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(1).
- Alderman, Harold & Garcia, Marito, 1994. "Food Security and Health Security: Explaining the Levels of Nutritional Status in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(3), pages 485-507, April.
- Wolfe, Barbara L. & Behrman, Jere R., 1987. "Women's schooling and children's health : Are the effects robust with adult sibling control for the women's childhood background?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 239-254, September.
- Yuyu Chen & Hongbin Li, 2006.
"Mother's Education and Child Health: Is There a Nurturing Effect?,"
00021, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics.
- Chen, Yuyu & Li, Hongbin, 2009. "Mother's education and child health: Is there a nurturing effect?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 413-426, March.
- Anne Case & Angela Fertig & Christina Paxson, 2003. "From Cradle to Grave? The Lasting Impact of Childhood Health and Circumstance," NBER Working Papers 9788, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Strauss, John, 1990. "Households, Communities, and Preschool Children's Nutrition Outcomes: Evidence from Rural Cote d'Ivoire," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(2), pages 231-61, January.
- Thomas, Duncan & Strauss, John & Henriques, Maria-Helena, 1990. "Child survival, height for age and household characteristics in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 197-234, October.
- Lucia Breierova & Esther Duflo, 2003.
"The Impact of Education on Fertility and Child Mortality: Do Fathers Really Matter Less Than Mothers?,"
OECD Development Centre Working Papers
217, OECD Publishing.
- Lucia Breierova & Esther Duflo, 2004. "The Impact of Education on Fertility and Child Mortality: Do Fathers Really Matter Less Than Mothers?," NBER Working Papers 10513, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & Victor Lavy & Rekha Menon, 2001. "Child Health and School Enrollment: A Longitudinal Analysis," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(1), pages 185-205.
- Behrman, Jere R. & Wolfe, Barbara L., 1987. "How does mother's schooling affect family health, nutrition, medical care usage, and household sanitation?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 185-204.
- Gibson, John, 2001. "Literacy and Intrahousehold Externalities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 155-166, January.
- World Bank, 2002. "Poverty Assessment : Poverty in Pakistan - Vulnerabilities, Social Caps, and Rural Dynamics," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15335, The World Bank.
- Sonalde Desai & Soumya Alva, 1998. "Maternal education and child health: Is there a strong causal relationship?," Demography, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 71-81, February.
- G. M. Arif, 2004. "Child Health and Poverty in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(3), pages 211-238.
- Van de gaer, Dirk & Vandenbossche, Joost & Figueroa, Jose Luis, 2013.
"Children's health opportunities and project evaluation : Mexico's Oportunidades program,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
6345, The World Bank.
- D. Van De Gaer & J. Vandenbossche & J. L. Figueroa, 2011. "Children’s health opportunities and project evaluation: Mexico’s Oportunidades program," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 11/749, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- VAN DE GAER, Dirk & VANDENBOSSCHE, Joost & FIGUEROA, José Luis, 2012. "Children’s health opportunities and project evaluation: Mexico’s Oportunidades program," CORE Discussion Papers 2012015, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Francesco Burchi, 2012. "Whose education affects a childâ€™s nutritional status? From parents' to household's education," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 27(23), pages 681-704, November.
- Bhagowalia, Priya & Menon, Purnima & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Soundararajan, Vidhya, 2012. "What Dimensions of Womenâ€™s Empowerment Matter Most for Child Nutrition? Evidence Using Nationally Representative Data from Bangladesh:," IFPRI discussion papers 1192, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Ana Maria Osorio & Catalina Bolancé & Nyovane Madise & Katharina Rathmann, 2013. "Social Determinants of Child Health in Colombia: Can Community Education Moderate the Effect of Family Characteristics?," Working Papers XREAP2013-02, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Mar 2013.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Caroline Wise).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.