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New Evidence of the Impact of Dividend Taxation and on the Identity of the Marginal Investor

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  • Tim Jenkinson
  • Leonie Bell

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of a major change in dividend taxation introduced in the UK in July 1997. The reform was structured in such a way that the immediate impact fell almost entirely on the largest investor class in the UK, namely pension funds. We analyse the behaviour of share prices around the ex-dividend day both before and after the reform to test clientele effects and the impact of taxation on the valuation of companies. We find strong clientele effects in the UK, which are consistent with the distortions introduced by the tax system (before the reform dividend income was tax-advantaged in the UK). We also find significant changes in the valuation of dividend income after the reform, in particular for high-yielding companies. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that taxation affects the valuation of companies, and that pension funds were the effective marginal investors for high-yielding companies.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number 24.

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Date of creation: 01 Oct 2000
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Handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:24

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Keywords: dividends; taxation; equity valuation;

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  3. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
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  8. Murray Frank & Ravi Jagannathan, 1997. "Why do stock prices drop by less than the value of the dividend? Evidence from a country without taxes," Staff Report 229, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
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  14. Lakonishok, Josef & Vermaelen, Theo, 1983. " Tax Reform and Ex-Dividend Day Behavior," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1157-79, September.
  15. Ang, James S & Blackwell, David W & Megginson, William L, 1991. " The Effect of Taxes on the Relative Valuation of Dividends and Capital Gains: Evidence from Dual-Class British Investment Trusts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 383-99, March.
  16. Keim, Donald B., 1985. "Dividend yields and stock returns: Implications of abnormal January returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 473-489, September.
  17. Kaplanis, Costas P, 1986. " Options, Taxes, and Ex-Dividend Day Behavior," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(2), pages 411-24, June.
  18. Philip Brown & Alex Clarke, 1993. "The Ex-Dividend Day Behaviour of Australian Share Prices Before and After Dividend Imputation," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 18(1), pages 1-40, June.
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  20. Lakonishok, Josef & Vermaelen, Theo, 1986. "Tax-induced trading around ex-dividend days," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 287-319, July.
  21. Litzenberger, Robert H. & Ramaswamy, Krishna, 1979. "The effect of personal taxes and dividends on capital asset prices : Theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 163-195, June.
  22. Lasfer, M Ameziane, 1995. " Ex-day Behavior: Tax or Short-Term Trading Effects," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(3), pages 875-97, July.
  23. Kalay, Avner, 1982. " The Ex-Dividend Pay Behavior of Stock Prices: A Re-Examination of the Clientele Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(4), pages 1059-70, September.
  24. Litzenberger, Robert H & Ramaswamy, Krishna, 1982. " The Effects of Dividends on Common Stock Prices: Tax Effects or Information Effects?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(2), pages 429-43, May.
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  27. Michaely, Roni & Murgia, Maurizio, 1995. "The Effect of Tax Heterogeneity on Prices and Volume around the Ex-dividend Day: Evidence from the Milan Stock Exchange," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(2), pages 369-99.
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