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Child Labor, Urban Proximity, and Household Composition

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  • Marcel Fafchamps
  • Jackline Wahba

Abstract

Using detailed survey data from Nepal, this paper examines the determinants of child labor with a special emphasis on urban proximity. We find that children residing in or near urban centers attend school more and work less in total but are more likely to be involved in wage work or in a small business. The larger the urban center, the stronger the effect is. Urban proximity is found to reduce the workload of children and improve school attendance up to 3 hours of travel time from the city. In areas of commercialized agriculture located 5 to 8 hours from the city, children do more farm work. Children unrelated or loosely related to the household head work more, especially in market work and household chores, and are less likely to attend school. This is especially true of child servants, a small group who appear particularly at risk.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Oxford, Department of Economics in its series Economics Series Working Papers with number 213.

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Date of creation: 01 Dec 2004
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Handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:213

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Keywords: Child Labor; Geographical Isolation; Altruism; Education;

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  1. Wolpin, Kenneth I, 1984. "An Estimable Dynamic Stochastic Model of Fertility and Child Mortality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(5), pages 852-74, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. John Gibson & David McKenzie, 2007. "Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Household Surveys For Better Economics and Better Policy," Working Papers in Economics, University of Waikato, Department of Economics 07/04, University of Waikato, Department of Economics.
  2. Edmonds, Eric V. & Schady, Norbert, 2008. "Poverty alleviation and child labor," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4702, The World Bank.
  3. Pedrosa, Jose & Do, Quy-Toan, 2008. "How does geographic distance affect credit market access in Niger ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4772, The World Bank.
  4. Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes R. Quisumbing, 2006. "Household Formation and Marriage Markets," Economics Series Working Papers, University of Oxford, Department of Economics GPRG-WPS-039, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  5. Richard Akresh, 2005. "Risk, Network Quality, and Family Structure: Child Fostering Decisions in Burkina Faso," Working Papers, Economic Growth Center, Yale University 902, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  6. Richard Akresh, 2004. "Adjusting Household Structure: School Enrollment Impacts of Child Fostering in Burkina Faso," Working Papers, Economic Growth Center, Yale University 897, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  7. Yamauchi, Futoshi & Muto, Megumi & Chowdhury, Shyamal & Dewina, Reno & Sumaryanto, Sony, 2009. "Spatial networks, labor supply, and income dynamics: Evidence from Indonesian villages," IFPRI discussion papers, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 897, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. Fafchamps, Marcel, 2012. "Reprint of development, agglomeration, and the organization of work," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 765-778.
  9. Yamauchi, Futoshi & Muto, Megumi & Chowdhury, Shyamal & Dewina, Reno & Sumaryanto, Sony, 2010. "Are Schooling and Roads Complementary? Evidence from Rural Indonesia," Working Papers, JICA Research Institute 10, JICA Research Institute.
  10. Fafchamps, Marcel, 2012. "Development, agglomeration, and the organization of work," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 459-472.
  11. Yamauchi, Futoshi & Muto, Megumi & Chowdhury, Shyamal & Dewina, Reno & Sumaryanto, Sony, 2011. "Are Schooling and Roads Complementary? Evidence from Income Dynamics in Rural Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2232-2244.
  12. Legrand Yémélé Kana & Sylvain Dessy & Jacques Ewoudou, 2010. "Are Foster Children Made Better Off by Informal Fostering Arrangements?," Cahiers de recherche, CIRPEE 1009, CIRPEE.
  13. Koolwal, Gayatri B., 2007. "Son Preference and Child Labor in Nepal: The Household Impact of Sending Girls to Work," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 881-903, May.
  14. Gibson, John & McKenzie, David, 2007. "Using the global positioning system in household surveys for better economics and better policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4195, The World Bank.
  15. Huisman, Janine & Smits, Jeroen, 2009. "Effects of Household- and District-Level Factors on Primary School Enrollment in 30 Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 179-193, January.

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