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The Creative Class, Bohemians and Local Labor Market Performance - A Micro-data Panel Study for Germany 1975-2004

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  • Joachim Möller

    ()
    (Institute for Employment Research (IAB))

  • Annie Tubaji

    (Osteuropa-Institut, Regensburg (Institut for East European Studies))

Abstract

The paper aims at testing Florida’s concept of the Creative Class using panel data for 323 West German regions for the time period 1975 – 2004. We apply two different estimation methods, a panel VAR for the complete data set and a dynamic system approach based on GMM for a modified data set collapsed to six five-year periods. We find that the local concentration of the Creative Class has predictive power for the economic development of a region and tends to outperform traditional indicators of human capital. However, our results do not support Florida’s assertion that the creative workers flock where the Bohemians are. According to our findings, the Creative Class is attracted by favorable economic conditions as indicated by employment growth or an increasing wage bill.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and South-East European Studies) in its series Working Papers with number 270.

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Length: 35
Date of creation: Dec 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ost:wpaper:270

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Keywords: Culture; Regional Development; Bohemians; Creative Class; Dynamic Panel Methods;

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  1. Mellander, Charlotta & Florida, Richard, 2007. "The Creative Class or Human Capital? - explaining regional development in Sweden," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 79, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  2. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
  3. Gautier, Pieter & Svarer, Michael & Teulings, Coen, 2005. "Marriage and the City," IZA Discussion Papers 1491, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano & Giovanni Peri, 2004. "The Economic Value of Cultural Diversity: Evidence from US Cities," CESifo Working Paper Series 1117, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Blien, Uwe & Suedekum, Jens & Wolf, Katja, 2006. "Local employment growth in West Germany: A dynamic panel approach," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 445-458, August.
  6. Ron A. Boschma & Michael Fritsch, 2007. "Creative Class and Regional Growth - Empirical Evidence from Eight European Countries," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-066, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  7. David Mcgranahan & Timothy Wojan, 2007. "Recasting the Creative Class to Examine Growth Processes in Rural and Urban Counties," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 197-216.
  8. Ed Glaeser & Jed Kolko & Albert Saiz, 2000. "Consumer City," NBER Working Papers 7790, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Ann Markusen, 2006. "Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 38(10), pages 1921-1940, October.
  10. Gary L. Hunt & Richard E. Mueller, 2004. "North American Migration: Returns to Skill, Border Effects, and Mobility Costs," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 988-1007, November.
  11. Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  12. Sam Youl Lee & Richard Florida & Zoltan Acs, 2004. "Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Regional Analysis of New Firm Formation," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 879-891.
  13. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  14. James Heilbrun, 1996. "Growth, accessibility and the distribution of arts activity in the United States: 1980 to 1990," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 283-296, December.
  15. Simon, Curtis J., 1998. "Human Capital and Metropolitan Employment Growth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 223-243, March.
  16. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Newey, Whitney & Rosen, Harvey S, 1988. "Estimating Vector Autoregressions with Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1371-95, November.
  17. Fritsch, Michael & Stützer, Michael, 2008. "The Geography of Creative People in Germany," MPRA Paper 21965, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  18. Rauch James E., 1993. "Productivity Gains from Geographic Concentration of Human Capital: Evidence from the Cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 380-400, November.
  19. Steve Bond, 2002. "Dynamic panel data models: a guide to microdata methods and practice," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/02, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  20. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
  21. Jesse M. Shapiro, 2005. "Smart Cities: Quality of Life, Productivity, and the Growth Effects of Human Capital," NBER Working Papers 11615, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-26, November.
  23. Timothy R. Wojan & Dayton M. Lambert & David A. McGranahan, 2007. "Emoting with their feet: Bohemian attraction to creative milieu -super-†," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(6), pages 711-736, November.
  24. Nathan, Max, 2007. "The Wrong Stuff? Creative Class Theory and Economic Performance in UK Cities," MPRA Paper 29486, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  25. Richard Florida, 2002. "Bohemia and economic geography," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(1), pages 55-71, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Jan Wedemeier, 2011. "Creative professionals and high-skilled agents': Polarization of employment growth?," ERSA conference papers ersa11p489, European Regional Science Association.
  2. Annie Tubadji & Peter Nijkamp, 2012. "Altruism to Strangers for our Own Sake: Domestic Effects from Immigration," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-079/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Krauskopf, Thomas & Bünger, Björn & Langen, Martin, 2010. "Cultural infrastructure and regional economic well-being in Germany: Are we creative yet?," CAWM Discussion Papers 30, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM), University of Münster.
  4. Christoph Alfken & Tom Broekel & Rolf Sternberg, 2013. "Factors explaining the spatial agglomeration of the Creative Class. Empirical evidence for German artists," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2013-02, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
  5. Annie Tubadji & Peter Nijkamp, 2012. "Altruism to Strangers for our Own Sake: Domestic Effects from Immigration," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-079/3, Tinbergen Institute.

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