Consumption of Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Tar under Anti-smoking Policies: Japan as a Case Study
AbstractJapan has implemented a number of anti-smoking policies; these include information disclosures, taxation, and smoking bans. These measures have increased the information available to consumers, as well as tax rates on tobacco products. First, this paper shows, theoretically, the association between a lack of information and over-consumption of cigarettes, and then examines the effects of smoking policies using monthly data from 1951 to 1999. Long-term policies have had greater effects than short-term policies. Taxation has reduced consumption, but income differences have had no significant effect. Following health disclosures in 1964 and 1967, many consumers switched to filtered cigarettes and low-nicotine and low-tar products, respectively. The move to lower tar and nicotine products was further accelerated by the "harmful to health" label applied to cigarettes in 1972, although many smokers then raised the number of cigarettes they smoked to keep up their intake of nicotine. Other policies have decreased cigarette, nicotine, and tar consumption since 1972.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP) in its series Discussion Papers in Economics and Business with number 04-12-Rev.
Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2004
Date of revision: Mar 2006
anti-smoking; health information; nicotine-tar; compensative behavior; rational addiction;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
- D11 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Theory
- D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-03-11 (All new papers)
- NEP-HEA-2006-03-11 (Health Economics)
- NEP-MKT-2006-03-11 (Marketing)
- NEP-SEA-2006-03-11 (South East Asia)
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