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Sequential procedures for poverty gap dominance

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  • Claudio Zoli

    ()
    (University of Bologna)

  • Peter J. Lambert

    ()
    (University of Oregon Economics Department)

Abstract

Poverty evaluations differ from welfare evaluations in one significant aspect, the existence of a threshold or reference point, the poverty line. It is therefore possible to build up normative evaluation models in which comparisons are made taking distances from this reference point and not only from the origin to be ethically relevant. This is the case in our model of poverty comparisons over heterogeneous populations, which focuses upon poverty gaps and not incomes. When poverty lines differ for the different groups in the population we show that choosing poverty gaps instead of incomes as the relevant indicator brings in normatively appealing classes of poverty indices not previously accommodated. For these indices poverty comparisons over heterogeneous populations are implemented through sequential poverty gap curves (or poverty gap distributions) dominance. These novel conditions are logically related to those suggested in Atkinson and Bourguignon (1987) for welfare comparisons, and can also be grounded firmly upon those of Bourguignon (1989). The proportion of poor individuals in the society or their average poverty gap play a role in our comparisons that was neglected in the existing poverty dominance criteria for heterogeneous populations. Various intermediate poverty dominance conditions and a generalization of the poverty gap approach are also investigated.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Oregon Economics Department in its series University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers with number 2005-1.

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Length: 53
Date of creation: 01 Jan 2005
Date of revision: 01 Jan 2005
Handle: RePEc:ore:uoecwp:2005-1

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Keywords: poverty measurement; poverty gap; heterogeneous population; sequential dominance.;

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  1. Davidson, R. & Duclos, J.-Y., 1998. "Statistical Inference for Stochastic Dominance and for the Measurement of Poverty and Inequality," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 98a14, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
  2. Peter Lambert & Xavi Ramos, 2001. "Welfare Comparisons: Sequential Procedures for Heterogeneous Population," CESifo Working Paper Series 519, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Erwin Ooghe, 2004. "Bounded Sequential Dominance Criteria," Center for Economic Studies - Discussion papers ces0405, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën.
  4. Duclos, Jean-Yves & Sahn, David & Younger, Stephen D., 2001. "Robust Multidimensional Poverty Comparisons," Cahiers de recherche 0115, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  5. Nicolas Gravel & Patrick Moyes, 2006. "Ethically Robust Comparisons of Distributions of Two Individual Attributes," IDEP Working Papers 0605, Institut d'economie publique (IDEP), Marseille, France, revised Aug 2006.
  6. Buhong Zheng, 1999. "On the power of poverty orderings," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 349-371.
  7. Bourguignon, Francois, 1989. "Family size and social utility : Income distribution dominance criteria," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 67-80, September.
  8. Bosmans, Kristof & Lauwers, Luc & Ooghe, Erwin, 2009. "A consistent multidimensional Pigou-Dalton transfer principle," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 144(3), pages 1358-1371, May.
  9. Shorrocks, Anthony F, 1995. "Revisiting the Sen Poverty Index," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(5), pages 1225-30, September.
  10. Jenkins, Stephen P & Lambert, Peter J, 1997. "Three 'I's of Poverty Curves, with an Analysis of UK Poverty Trends," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(3), pages 317-27, July.
  11. Duclos, Jean-Yves & Makdissi, Paul, 1999. "Sequential Stochastic Dominance and the Robustness of Poverty Orderings," Cahiers de recherche 9905, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  12. Atkinson, A B, 1987. "On the Measurement of Poverty," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 749-64, July.
  13. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
  14. Satya Ranjan Chakravarty, 1983. "Ethically Flexible Measures of Poverty," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 16(1), pages 74-85, February.
  15. Donaldson, David & Pendakur, Krishna, 2004. "Equivalent-expenditure functions and expenditure-dependent equivalence scales," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1-2), pages 175-208, January.
  16. Atkinson, A B, 1992. "Measuring Poverty and Differences in Family Composition," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 59(233), pages 1-16, February.
  17. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
  18. Jenkins, Stephen P & Lambert, Peter J, 1993. "Ranking Income Distributions When Needs Differ," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 39(4), pages 337-56, December.
  19. Chambaz, Christine & Maurin, Eric, 1998. "Atkinson and Bourguignon's Dominance Criteria: Extended and Applied to the Measurement of Poverty in France," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 44(4), pages 497-513, December.
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