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A Framework for Addressing and Measuring Entrepreneurship


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  • Nadim Ahmad
  • Anders Hoffman


In recent years entrepreneurship has become a buzzword that?s entered the mainstream. Politicians continuously cite its importance and the need to create more entrepreneurial societies, and newspapers and television programmes frequently create themes around successful entrepreneurs. But, the pursuit and development of policies related to entrepreneurship are often hampered by the limited, albeit growing, empirical information relating to entrepreneurship (its size, factors and benefits). Therefore, in the absence of definitions that capture the essence of entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurship indicators that are internationally comparable, policy makers are left somewhat rudderless when it comes to developing policies, particularly when they relate to learning from international best-practice. These shortcomings and the growing importance of entrepreneurship in the policy domain have magnified the need for a sounder basis for internationally comparable indicators of entrepreneurship. This paper provides a framework that is intended to provide that sounder basis. It does so by adopting a holistic approach, and, so, by focusing on the: factors that impede or motivate entrepreneurship (determinants); measures that provide indicators of the state of entrepreneurship (entrepreneurial performance); and, outcomes (impacts) of that performance on the economy as a whole. Each of these three themes provides the overarching structure to the framework, using a standardised OECD definition of entrepreneurship, and, within each, we develop a suite of indicators that provide the basis for quantifiable information to be collected in an internationally comparable way for each of these themes. Cadre pour la présentation et la mesure de l'entrepreneuriat L’entrepreneuriat est devenu un terme incontournable ces dernières années, il est au coeur des préoccupations des décideurs politiques qui soulignent très régulièrement son importance et la nécessité de créer des sociétés plus entrepreneuriales. De même, journaux et émissions télévisées montent fréquemment des sujets autour d'entrepreneurs qui réussissent. Malgré cela, le développement de politiques liées à entrepreneuriat sont souvent entravés par les limites, quoique régulièrement repoussées, de l’information empirique disponible sur l?entrepreneuriat (sa taille, les facteurs l'encourageant et les avantages retirés). Ainsi, l'absence de définition communément admise sur l’essence de l'entrepreneuriat et d'indicateurs comparables au niveau international, laisse les décideurs politiques sans leviers de commande pour développer leur politiques économiques et ce, de façon plus prégnante encore lorsqu'il s'agit d'étudier les meilleurs pratiques internationales. Ces imperfections, ajoutées à l’importance croissante de l’entrepreneuriat sur la scène politique, ont renforcé le besoin de fondements plus solides au niveau international pour des indicateurs sur l'entrepreneuriat. Ce document apporte cette base solide en adoptant une approche holistique. Il rassemble les facteurs qui entravent ou encouragent l?entrepreneuriat (les déterminants) ; les mesures évaluant l'état de l'entrepreneuriat (les indicateurs de performance) ; et les résultats (l'impact économique). Ces trois thèmes structurent le cadre d'analyse et utilisent la définition standardisée de l'OCDE pour l'entrepreneuriat. Pour chacun de ces thèmes nous développons une suite d'indicateurs, donnant ainsi une base d’information statistique à collecter comparable au niveau international.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Statistics Working Papers with number 2008/2.

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Date of creation: 24 Jan 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:oec:stdaaa:2008/2-en

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Cited by:
  1. Michael Peneder, 2009. "The Meaning of Entrepreneurship: A Modular Concept," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 77-99, June.
  2. Stenholm, Pekka & Acs, Zoltan J. & Wuebker, Robert, 2013. "Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 176-193.
  3. Radosevic, Slavo & Yoruk, Esin, 2013. "Entrepreneurial propensity of innovation systems: Theory, methodology and evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 1015-1038.
  4. Goetz, Stephan J. & Partridge, Mark D. & Deller, Steven C. & Fleming, David A., 2010. "Evaluating U.S. Rural Entrepreneurship Policy," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 40(1).
  5. Zoltan J. Acs & José Ernesto Amorós, 2008. "Introduction: The startup process," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 35(2 Year 20), pages 121-132, December.
  6. Ács, Zoltán J. & Autio, Erkko & Szerb, László, 2014. "National Systems of Entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 476-494.
  7. Serge Lenga, 2013. "Un Effet Moderateur Des Processus Cognitifs De L'Entrepreneur Sur Les Opportunites D'Affaires Situees Dans L'Espace Geographique," Working Papers hal-00832027, HAL.
  8. Zoltan Acs & Sameeksha Desai & Jolanda Hessels, 2008. "Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 219-234, October.
  9. Amoros, Jose Ernesto, 2009. "Entrepreneurship and Quality of Institutions," Working Paper Series, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER) UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  10. Avanzini, Diego B., 2009. "Designing Composite Entrepreneurship Indicators: An Application Using Consensus PCA," Working Paper Series, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER) UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).


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