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OECD Extended Regional Typology: The Economic Performance of Remote Rural Regions

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  • Monica Brezzi
  • Lewis Dijkstra
  • Vicente Ruiz
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    Abstract

    To account for differences among rural and urban regions, the OECD s established a regional typology, classifying TL3 regions as predominantly urban (PU), intermediate (IN) or predominantly rural (PR) (OECD, 2009). This typology, based essentially on the percentage of regional population living in urban or rural communities, has proved to be meaningful to better explain regional differences in economic and labour market performance. However this typology does not take into account the presence of economic agglomerations if they happen to be in neighbouring regions. For example, a region is classified as rural or intermediate regardless its distance from a large urban centre where labour market, access to services, education opportunities and logistics for firms can be wider. Previous work reveals great heterogeneity in economic growth among rural regions and the distance from a populated centre could be a significant factor explaining these differences. For the latter, the OECD regional typology is extended to include an accessibility criterion. This criterion is based on the driving time needed for at least half of the population in a region to reach a populated centre of with 50 000 or more inhabitants. The resulting classification consists of four types of regions: Predominantly Urban (PU), Intermediate (IN), Predominantly Rural Close to a city (PRC) and Predominantly Rural Remote (PRR). For the time being, the extended typology has only been computed for regions in North America (Canada, Mexico and the United States) and Europe. The extended typology is used to compare the dynamics of population and labour markets. Remote rural regions show a stronger decline in population and a faster ageing process than rural regions close to a city. The remoteness of rural regions is in fact a significant factor explaining regional outflows of working age population, confirming that this extended typology captures the economic distance from market and services. Remote rural regions appear economically more fragile: lower employment rates (Canada and Mexico) and economic output (Europe). Afin de prendre en compte les différences entre les régions rurales et urbaines, l’OCDE a établi une typologie régionale qui classe les régions TL3 en 3 catégories : régions majoritairement urbaines (PU), intermédiaires (IN) ou à prédominance rurale (PR), (OCDE, 2009). Cette typologie, qui repose essentiellement sur le pourcentage de la population régionale vivant dans des communautés urbaines ou rurales, s'est révélée significative pour mieux expliquer les différences régionales au niveau de la performance économique et du marché du travail. Toutefois, cette typologie ne tient pas compte de la présence de grandes agglomérations, si celles-ci se trouvent dans des régions voisines. Par exemple, une région est considérée comme rurale ou intermédiaire indépendamment de sa distance d'un grand centre urbain, où le marché du travail, l'accès aux services, les possibilités d'éducation et l’offre logistique pour les entreprises peuvent être meilleurs. Des travaux antérieurs révèlent une grande hétérogénéité de croissance économique entre les régions rurales, et la distance d'un centre fortement peuplé pourrait être un facteur important pour expliquer ces différences. C’est pour cette raison que la typologie régionale de l'OCDE a été élargie afin d’y inclure un critère d'accessibilité. Ce critère est basé sur le temps de trajet que doit réaliser au moins la moitié de la population d’une région pour atteindre un centre urbain de 50 000 habitants ou plus. La classification qui en résulte se compose de quatre types de régions: Majoritairement Urbaines (PU), Intermédiaires (IN), à prédominance rurale proches d'une ville (RPC) et à prédominance rurale éloignées (PRR). Pour l'heure, la typologie élargie n'a été calculée que pour les régions en Amérique du Nord (Canada, Mexique, États-Unis) et en Europe. La typologie élargie est utilisée pour comparer la dynamique de la population et celle des marchés du travail. Elle montre que les régions rurales éloignées ont une baisse plus importante de leur population et un processus de vieillissement plus rapide que les régions rurales proches d'une ville. L'éloignement des régions rurales est en effet un facteur important pour expliquer les migrations régionales de la population en âge de travailler, ce qui confirme que cette typologie élargie prend bien en compte la distance économique du marché et des services. Les régions rurales éloignées apparaissent plus fragiles au niveau économique : des taux d'emploi inférieurs (Canada et Mexique) et une production économique moindre (Europe).

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Regional Development Working Papers with number 2011/6.

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    Date of creation: 02 Aug 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:govaab:2011/6-en

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    Related research

    Keywords: ageing; rural regions; OECD regional typology; labour market mobility; road networks; distance to markets;

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    Cited by:
    1. Francisco José Goerlich Gisbert & Isidro Cantarino Martí, 2013. "Redefiniendo ciudades," Working Papers. Serie EC 2013-06, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    2. Francisco José Goerlich Gisbert & Isidro Cantarino Martí, 2013. "Población rural y urbana a nivel municipal," Working Papers. Serie EC 2013-01, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).

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