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Cities and Carbon Market Finance: Taking Stock of Cities' Experience With Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI)

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  • Christa Clapp
  • Alexia Leseur
  • Oliver Sartor
  • Gregory Briner
  • Jan Corfee-Morlot

Abstract

The importance of cities in climate policy stems from the simple reality that they house the majority of the world’s population, two-thirds of world energy use and over 70% of global energy use emissions. At the international level, global carbon markets have become an important new source of financing for mitigation projects and programmes. Yet to date, the participation of urban authorities and of urban mitigation projects in the global carbon market remains extremely limited. The under-representation of urban carbon projects can be linked both to the difficulties to implement urban mitigation projects and to the difficulties for cities to access the carbon market. This paper reviews 10 in–depth case studies of urban projects proposed and operating within the realm of Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. It explores the drivers of success for projects, examining in particular: types of projects that have been successful and their profitability; leadership and other roles of various actors in project initiation development and operation (i.e. local, regional and national governments as well as international, private sector or other non-governmental organisations); the role of local cobenefits; and project financial structure and risk management approaches. This paper also considers how these lessons learned may inform decisions in the future about how to best tap the potential for carbon markets to offer increased levels of financial support for urban mitigation projects or programmes. La place accordée aux villes dans la politique climatique découle d’un constat simple : elles abritent la majorité de la population mondiale, consomment les deux tiers de l’énergie mondiale et produisent plus de 70 % des émissions mondiales liées à cette consommation. Au niveau international, les marchés mondiaux du carbone sont devenus une nouvelle source importante de financement pour les projets et les programmes d’atténuation. Pourtant, à ce jour, la participation des autorités urbaines et des projets urbains d’atténuation au marché mondial du carbone reste encore extrêmement limitée. La sous-représentation des projets urbains dans le domaine du carbone est à mettre en rapport avec les difficultés inhérentes à la mise en oeuvre de projets urbains d’atténuation et avec les obstacles rencontrés par les villes pour accéder au marché du carbone. Ce rapport examine dix études de cas approfondies portant sur des projets urbains, envisagés ou existants, dans le domaine de la mise en oeuvre conjointe (MOC) ou du mécanisme pour un développement propre (MDP) du Protocole de Kyoto. Il explore les facteurs de succès des projets, en examinant plus particulièrement les types de projets qui ont réussi et leur rentabilité ; le rôle moteur des autorités et celui des différents acteurs dans le lancement des projets, leur développement et leur fonctionnement (autorités locales, régionales et nationales, et organisations internationales, non gouvernementales et du secteur privé) ; les avantages connexes locaux ; et les approches en matière de structure financière des projets et de gestion des risques. Cette étude envisage aussi comment les enseignements tirés de ces expériences pourront à l’avenir éclairer les décisions futures sur les moyens de mobiliser au mieux le potentiel des marchés du carbone au service de l’accroissement du soutien financier aux projets ou programmes urbains d’atténuation.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Environment Working Papers with number 29.

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Date of creation: 19 Nov 2010
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Handle: RePEc:oec:envaaa:29-en

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Keywords: Kyoto protocol; cities; greenhouse gas mitigation; climate change; carbon finance; Protocole de Kyoto; changement climatique; atténuation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre; finance carbone; villes;

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