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School Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review

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  • Violaine Faubert
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    Abstract

    This paper examines the current academic and policy literatures concerning school evaluation in primary and secondary education within the OECD countries. First, it provides a typology of the existing systems of school evaluation across the OECD. It encompasses the diverse criteria and instruments commonly used to carry out schools evaluation, as well as the players involved in the design and implementation of school evaluation. It also describes potential consequences for schools. Second, this paper analyses how school evaluation schemes are interrelated with other components of the evaluation framework, such as teacher evaluation and system evaluation. The potential complementarities, duplication and inconsistency of objectives stemming from these interrelations are discussed. Third, this paper presents the advantages and drawbacks of different approaches to school evaluation, the resistance and implementation difficulties resulting from misalignment of interests between different stakeholders, and possible ways to overcome impediments to implementation. Finally, it reviews the quantitative and qualitative evidence available on the impact of different school evaluation schemes on school performance, student learning and the incentives for the teaching staff. It concludes by considering the circumstances under which school evaluation schemes seem to be more conducive to school improvement. The effectiveness of school evaluation schemes relies on developing competencies for evaluation and for using feedbacks. Alignment of stakeholders' interests is also critical to have the support of those being assessed. Cet article dresse une revue de la littérature académique et empirique consacrée à l'évaluation des établissements scolaires primaires et secondaires au sein des pays de l'OCDE. Une typologie des différents systèmes d'évaluation existants est tout d'abord esquissée. Les différents instruments et critères utilisés pour procéder à l'évaluation des établissements scolaires, ainsi que les acteurs impliqués dans la conception et la mise en oeuvre des systèmes d'évaluation des écoles, sont précisés. Les conséquences induites par les résultats de l'évaluation pour les établissements sont également évoquées. Cette revue de littérature analyse ensuite les relations existant entre l’évaluation des établissement scolaires et autres composantes du cadre d'évaluation du système scolaire, notamment l'évaluation des enseignants et l'évaluation du système éducatif. Les sources de complémentarité, effets de doublon et possibles incompatibilités entre ces différentes composantes, sont évoqués. Les avantages et les inconvénients des différentes approches de l'évaluation des écoles, ainsi que les résistances et les difficultés rencontrées dans leur mise en oeuvre en raison des divergences d'intérêt et de point de vue des différents acteurs (autorités éducatives, inspecteurs, chefs d'établissement, corps enseignant…), sont soulignés. Les résultats quantitatifs et qualitatifs d'études empiriques destinées à tester l'impact de l'évaluation sur les performances des élèves, la gestion des établissements, la motivation des enseignants et, plus largement, sur les incitations des agents, sont mentionnés. Cette revue de littérature décrit enfin les environnements les plus favorables au développement des mécanismes d'évaluation les plus efficaces. Ceux-ci supposent notamment le développement de compétences en vue de procéder à des évaluations et d'en exploiter les résultats, ainsi que le soutien et la convergence de vues des acteurs impliqués dans le processus.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/218816547156
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Education Working Papers with number 42.

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    Date of creation: 15 Dec 2009
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:eduaab:42-en

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    Keywords: evaluation; évaluation;

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