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Promouvoir la maîtrise locale et régionale du développement : Une démarche participative à Madagascar

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  • Philippe de Rham
  • Bernard Lecomte
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    Abstract

    A la fin des années 80, un projet de reboisement est mené dans quelques communautés à Madagascar avec le soutien financier de la Suisse. Ce projet connaît un succès sur le plan technique et son efficacité est reconnue, mais il se heurte à deux problèmes essentiels : comment réussir la diffusion et comment assurer la continuité des activités sans une intervention omniprésente de sa part ? Les paysans ont acquis grâce au projet un savoir-faire, mais leurs capacités d'organisation et de gestion autonome sont faibles et ils manquent d'esprit d'initiative. Dans ce contexte, comment amorcer un véritable processus de développement local ? Des services publics insuffisamment développés et peu performants en milieu rural sont le résultat de 20 années d'une politique négligeant ce secteur et favorisant une approche centralisée. L'ensemble de la démarche doit être revu : les paysans doivent devenir les acteurs principaux du projet et non plus être de simples exécutants. L'adoption d'un ... By the late 1980s, a technically successful and well-regarded project of reforestation that had been carried out in certain communities in Madagascar with the assistance of bilateral aid from Switzerland, was facing new challenges: How to replicate and continue the activities without ubiquitous project interventions? The project has transmitted know-how to the farmers but their capacity to organise and manage independently was still weak and they were lacking initiative. How to stimulate a process of genuinely local development under such circumstances? Government services in rural areas were poor and fragmented, a legacy of some 20 years of policies favouring an overly centralised approach largely neglectful of the rural areas. The entire approach had to be reconsidered: the farmers were to become the main actors of the project rather than simple executors. A process of selfevaluation triggered dynamics of change. A new strategy was designed and a new programme was adopted, with ...

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/143532855872
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Development Centre Working Papers with number 96.

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    Date of creation: Jun 1994
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:96-fr

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