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Impact of Structural Adjustment and Adoption of Technology on Competitiveness of Major Cocoa Producing Countries

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  • Emily M. Bloomfield
  • R. Antony Lass
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    Abstract

    All the world’s cocoa is grown in developing countries — more than half in West Africa — essentially for export. Except in Brazil, Malaysia and Indonesia, it is grown by smallholders. In the international cocoa market, prices rose steeply in 1977 but have been in almost constant decline since and production surpluses have persisted. For producers, the impact of the structural adjustment and liberalisation process has been mixed. While prices have remained low on the international market, producers have generally received a higher share of the international market price. On the other hand, input prices have increased and subsidies for fertiliser or improved planting material have either been reduced or eliminated. Under these conditions, poor producers then use even fewer purchased inputs. Structural adjustment has had a negative impact on cocoa research, particularly in public research institutions in Brazil and in Africa. In Malaysia the situation is different as the ... La totalité de la production mondiale de cacao est cultivée dans les pays en developpement — plus de la moitié en Afrique de l’Ouest et essentiellement pour l’exportation. A l’exception du Brésil, de la Malaisie et de l’Indonésie; le cacao est produit par de petits exploitants. Sur le marchés international, les cours du cacao ont connu une hausse brutale en 1977 mais subi une baisse constante depuis, alors que les surplus de production persistent. Pour les producteurs, les conséquences de l’ajustement structurel et du processus de libéralisation ont été diverses. Malgré le maintien de prix bas sur le marché international, les producteurs ont généralement perçus une marge plus élevée du cours officiel. Par ailleurs, les prix des intrants ont augmenté et les subventions pour les engrais et le matériel agricole ont été réduites ou éliminées. Dans ces conditions, les exploitants les plus pauvres achètent encore moins d’intrants. L’ajustement structurel a eu un impact ...

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/275313772128
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Development Centre Working Papers with number 69.

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    Date of creation: Jun 1992
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:69-en

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    Cited by:
    1. Wilcox, Michael D. & Abbott, Philip C., 2006. "Can Cocoa Farmer Organizations Countervail Buyer Market Power?," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association) 21261, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    2. Abbott, Philip C., 2003. "Towards More Socially Responsible Cocoa Trade," Working Papers, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium 14603, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    3. Francis Teal & Marcella Vigneri, 2004. "Production changes in ghana cocoa farming households under market reforms," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2004-16, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.

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