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Comparative Advantage in Agriculture in Ghana

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  • James Pickett
  • E. Shaeeldin
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    Abstract

    In 1957, when independence came, Ghana was one of the most advanced economies in sub-Saharan Africa. It seemed well placed to make rapid and substantial progress. In the event, economic performance was dismal, and by 1982 the economy was all but in ruins. External conditions and the weather can carry some of the blame for this. However, the fault lay mostly in internal policy, which, contrary to sound advice given by Arthur Lewis in 1953, discriminated against agriculture and increasingly inhibited market forces. Since 1983 economic reform and recovery have been under way. Here a realistic exchange rate has been central, and market forces have been resurgent. Apart from encouraging the cocoa farmer, policies have not noticeably included agriculture. Stateencouraged agricultural research and development and rural infrastructure could, however, be important, alongside soundly based industrial development ... A l'heure de son indépendance, en 1957, le Ghana figurait parmi les économies les plus avancées de l'Afrique subsaharienne. Promis à de rapides et importants progrès, ses résultats se sont cependant révélés médiocres et, en 1982, son économie était réduite à un état de ruines. L'environnement extérieur et les conditions climatiques sont en partie responsables de cette évolution. La plus lourde responsabilité incombe néanmoins à la gestion intérieure qui, en contradiction avec les conseils d'Arthur Lewis de 1953, pénalisa l'agriculture et paralysa peu à peu les forces du marché. Depuis 1983, les autorités ont procédé à une réforme économique permettant de s'engager sur la voie du rétablissement. L'institution d'un taux de change réaliste a favorisé la restauration des forces du marché. Si l'on excepte un soutien aux planteurs de cacao, l'agriculture n'a pas été particulièrement prise en compte dans la politique économique. Pourtant, une recherche-développement soutenue par l'Etat dans ...

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Development Centre Working Papers with number 31.

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    Date of creation: Oct 1990
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:31-en

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