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Congo 1965-1999 : Les espoirs déçus du « Brésil africain »

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  • Joseph Maton
  • Henri-Bernard Solignac Lecomte
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    Abstract

    L'économie de la République Démocratique du Congo est aujourd'hui bien plus pauvre qu'elle ne l'était à l'indépendance. La désorganisation de l'offre et l'érosion presque continue de la demande l'ont entraînée depuis les années 70 dans une spirale négative, provoquant l'informalisation de secteurs entiers, voire leur " criminalisation ", jusqu'à ce que le pays s'installe dans une économie de guerre à la fin des années 90. La première cause en est l'expérience désastreuse, en matière de gouvernance, des régimes Mobutu et L.D. Kabila - respectivement soutenu puis lâché par les grandes puissances pendant la guerre froide, et instrumentalisé par les petites puissances régionales dans la période récente. La situation humanitaire catastrophique qui en résulte représente, outre un drame insupportable, une hypothèque particulièrement lourde pour le développement futur de la RDC, et crée les conditions d'une déstabilisation prolongée. L'arrêt de la guerre - à condition que les ressorts ... The economy of the Democratic Republic of Congo is now poorer than it was at independence. From the 1970s, the breakdown of supply and almost continuous erosion of demand gave way to a negative spiral leading to the informalisation, even criminalisation, of whole sectors until the country entered a war economy at the end of the 1990s. The prime reason for such a state of affairs was the atrocious governance record of the Mobutu and Laurent Désiré Kabila régimes - respectively supported, then abandoned by the Great Powers during the Cold War and manipulated by powerful regional neighbours. The resulting human catastrophe represents, apart from an appalling drama, a particularly heavy legacy for the future development of the Congo and creates the conditions for long and drawn-out destabilisation. An end to the war, conditioned on the eradication of its underlying economic causes, will provide an opportunity for a concerted strategy between the governments of the region, donors and the ...

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Development Centre Working Papers with number 178.

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    Date of creation: Sep 2001
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:178-fr

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