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Politiques de l'environnement et libéralisation des échanges au Costa Rica : Une vue d'ensemble


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  • Sébastien Dessus
  • Maurizio Bussolo


A partir d’un modèle dynamique d’équilibre général appliqué au Costa Rica, les auteurs analysent les liens entre l’environnement, le commerce international et la croissance économique. Leur étude envisage les conséquences des politiques commerciales et environnementales sur l’activité économique et la maîtrise de la pollution. Les taxes sur la pollution environnementale permettent de réduire sensiblement les polluants sans affecter la croissance économique. Les politiques d’ouverture commerciale sont bénéfiques pour l’activité économique, mais comportent le risque de voir le Costa Rica se spécialiser dans des industries fortement polluantes. L’application de politiques environnementales et commerciales coordonnées permet de limiter la pollution tout en favorisant la réallocation des facteurs de production vers les activités les plus productives et, partant, la croissance économique ... This paper analyses linkages between growth, trade and the environment in Costa Rica with a Computable General Equilibrium economy-wide model. The investigation considers trade liberalisation and environmental policy reform, and their impact on economic activity and polluting emissions. Environmental taxes are shown to have a small negative impact on growth while allowing a sharp decrease of emissions. Outward orientation promotes growth, but induces a risk of wholesale specialisation in “dirty” activities. Free trade, combined with appropriate effluent taxes, enhance factor reallocation towards competitive industries, and hence growth, while significantly abating emissions ...

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Development Centre Working Papers with number 110.

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Date of creation: Feb 1996
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Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:110-fr

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