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Adult Equivalence Scales, Inequality and Poverty in New Zealand

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  • John Creedy
  • Catherine Sleeman

    ()
    (New Zealand Treasury)

Abstract

This paper examines the sensitivity of inequality and poverty measures to the choice of adult equivalence scales and the type of income unit examined. Comparisons are made using parametric equivalence scales, and income units include individuals, equivalent adults and households. The results are based on HES data for total expenditure. A variety of equivalence scales, for New Zealand, Australia, the UK and the OECD are examined. The implications of varying the poverty line are also considered.

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File URL: http://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/research-policy/wp/2004/04-21/twp04-21.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by New Zealand Treasury in its series Treasury Working Paper Series with number 04/21.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:nzt:nztwps:04/21

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Postal: New Zealand Treasury, PO Box 3724, Wellington, New Zealand
Phone: +64-4-472 2733
Fax: +64-4-473 0982
Web page: http://www.treasury.govt.nz
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Keywords: Inequality; poverty; equivalence scales; living standard; income unit;

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References

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  1. Cowell, Frank A, 1984. "The Structure of American Income Inequality," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 30(3), pages 351-75, September.
  2. Richard Blundell & Ian Preston, 1994. "Income or consumption in the measurement of inequality and poverty?," IFS Working Papers W94/12, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  3. Creedy, J., 2001. "The GST and Vertical, Horizontal and Reranking Effects of Indirect Taxation in Australia," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 784, The University of Melbourne.
  4. Orazio P. Attanasio & Tullio Jappelli, 2000. "The life cycle hypothesis and consumption inequality," IFS Working Papers W97/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  5. André Decoster & Erwin Ooghe, 2002. "Weighting with individuals, equivalent individuals, or not weighting at all. Does it matter empirically?," Public Economics Working Paper Series ces0215, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, Working Group Public Economics.
  6. Ebert, Udo, 1997. "Social Welfare When Needs Differ: An Axiomatic Approach," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(254), pages 233-44, May.
  7. Richard Blundell & Ian Preston, 1997. "Consumption, inequality and income uncertainty," IFS Working Papers W97/15, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  8. Coulter, Fiona A E & Cowell, Frank A & Jenkins, Stephen P, 1992. "Equivalence Scale Relativities and the Extent of Inequality and Poverty," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(414), pages 1067-82, September.
  9. John Creedy & Ivan Tuckwell, 2003. "Reweighting the New Zealand Household Economic Survey for Tax Microsimuilation Modelling," Treasury Working Paper Series 03/33, New Zealand Treasury.
  10. Glewwe, Paul, 1991. "Household equivalence scales and the measurement of inequality : Transfers from the poor to the rich could decrease inequality," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 211-216, March.
  11. Banks, James & Johnson, Paul, 1994. "Equivalence Scale Relativities Revisited," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(425), pages 883-90, July.
  12. Creedy, John & van de Ven, Justin, 2001. "Decomposing Redistributive Effects of Taxes and Transfers in Australia: Annual and Lifetime Measures," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 185-98, June.
  13. Creedy, John, 1997. "Labour Supply and Social Welfare When Utility Depends on a Threshold Consumption Level," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 73(221), pages 159-68, June.
  14. Jenkins, Stephen P & Cowell, Frank A, 1994. "Parametric Equivalence Scales and Scale Relativities," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(425), pages 891-900, July.
  15. John Creedy & Rosanna Scutella, 2003. "The Role of the Unit of Analysis in Tax Policy Reform Evaluations," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2003n28, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  16. Plotnick, Robert, 1981. "A Measure of Horizontal Inequity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(2), pages 283-88, May.
  17. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
  18. Decoster, Andre & Schokkaert, Erik & Van Camp, Guy, 1997. "Is redistribution through indirect taxes equitable?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 599-608, April.
  19. Danziger, Sheldon & Taussig, Michael K, 1979. "The Income Unit and the Anatomy of Income Distribution," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 25(4), pages 365-75, December.
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Cited by:
  1. John Creedy & Catherine Sleeman, 2005. "Excise Taxation in New Zealand," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 929, The University of Melbourne.

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