A spectral analysis of New Zealand output gaps using Fourier and wavelet techniques
AbstractThis paper uses frequency domain techniques to illustrate the properties of various measures of New Zealand's output gap. Measures of the output gap are estimated using a number of different methods: a Structural VAR model, a multivariate unobserved components model, the Hodrick-Prescott filter, a multivariate time series filter, and a linear time trend filter. Spectral densities, calculated using the Fourier transform, highlight a number of important differences in the cyclical properties of the various output gap measures. However, the Fourier transform requires time series to be (weakly) stationary. This may be an unreasonable assumption for New Zealand data given our recent economic history. Accordingly, the paper also uses time-dependant spectra, calculated using wavelet analysis, to further illustrate the cyclical characteristics of the different techniques used to estimate the output gap.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Reserve Bank of New Zealand in its series Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series with number DP2000/06.
Date of creation: Jun 2000
Date of revision:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Nelson, Charles R. & Plosser, Charles I., 1982. "Trends and random walks in macroeconmic time series : Some evidence and implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 139-162.
- Marianne Baxter & Robert G. King, 1995.
"Measuring Business Cycles Approximate Band-Pass Filters for Economic Time Series,"
NBER Working Papers
5022, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marianne Baxter & Robert G. King, 1999. "Measuring Business Cycles: Approximate Band-Pass Filters For Economic Time Series," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(4), pages 575-593, November.
- Paul Conway & Ben Hunt, 1997. "Estimating potential output: a semi-structural approach," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series G97/9, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
- Canova, Fabio, 1993.
"Detrending and Business Cycle Facts,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
782, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Harvey, A C & Jaeger, A, 1993. "Detrending, Stylized Facts and the Business Cycle," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(3), pages 231-47, July-Sept.
- Jane T. Haltmaier, 1996. "Inflation-adjusted potential output," International Finance Discussion Papers 561, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Hodrick, Robert J & Prescott, Edward C, 1997.
"Postwar U.S. Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(1), pages 1-16, February.
- Ivailo Izvorski, . "MATLAB code for the Hodrick-Prescott filter," QM&RBC Codes 1, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Kurt Annen, 2006. "HP-Filter Excel Add-In," QM&RBC Codes 165, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Kurt Annen, 2004. "Matlab functions for HP-filter," QM&RBC Codes 166, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Christian Zimmermann, 2005. "HP-Filter (web interface)," QM&RBC Codes 97, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Ken Matheny & Simon van Norden & Robert Vigfusson, 1989. "GAUSS code for the Hodrick-Prescott filter," QM&RBC Codes 2, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles, revised Apr 1995.
- Robert J. Hodrick & Edward Prescott, 1981. "Post-War U.S. Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation," Discussion Papers 451, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Kurt Annen, 2004. "HP-filter for Java," QM&RBC Codes 168, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Christian Zimmermann, 2005. "HP-Filter code (Perl)," QM&RBC Codes 98, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Morten Ravn, . "GAUSS program for Hodrick-Prescott filter," QM&RBC Codes 101, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Morten Ravn, . "Alternate GAUSS program for the Hodrick-Prescott Filter," QM&RBC Codes 102, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Kurt Annen, 2006. "HP-Filter DLL executable," QM&RBC Codes 167, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Edward C. Prescott, 1982. "FORTRAN code for the Hodrick-Prescott filter," QM&RBC Codes 3, Quantitative Macroeconomics & Real Business Cycles.
- Cochrane, John H, 1994. "Permanent and Transitory Components of GNP and Stock Prices," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(1), pages 241-65, February.
- Ramsey James B. & Lampart Camille, 1998. "The Decomposition of Economic Relationships by Time Scale Using Wavelets: Expenditure and Income," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-22, April.
- Gregory, Allan W & Smith, Gregor W, 1995.
"Business Cycle Theory and Econometrics,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(433), pages 1597-1608, November.
- Cogley, Timothy & Nason, James M., 1995.
"Effects of the Hodrick-Prescott filter on trend and difference stationary time series Implications for business cycle research,"
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control,
Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 253-278.
- Timothy Cogley & James M. Nason, 1993. "Effects of the Hodrick-Prescott filter on trend and difference stationary time series: implications for business cycle research," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory 93-01, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Chantal Dupasquier & Alain Guay & Pierre St-Amant, 1997. "A Comparison of Alternative Methodologies for Estimating Potential Output and the Output Gap," Working Papers 97-5, Bank of Canada.
- King, Robert G. & Plosser, Charles I. & Rebelo, Sergio T., 1988. "Production, growth and business cycles : I. The basic neoclassical model," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2-3), pages 195-232.
- Tomás del Barrio Castro & Paulo M.M. Rodrigues & A. M. Robert Taylor, 2011.
"The Impact of Persistent Cycles on Zero Frequency Unit Root Tests,"
w201124, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
- Castro, Tomás del Barrio & Rodrigues, Paulo M.M. & Taylor, A.M. Robert, 2013. "The Impact Of Persistent Cycles On Zero Frequency Unit Root Tests," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(06), pages 1289-1313, December.
- Moisa, Altar & Necula, Ciprian & Bobeica, Gabriel, 2010. "Estimating Potential GDP for the Romanian Economy. An Eclectic Approach," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 5-25, September.
- Christoph Schleicher, 2002. "An Introduction to Wavelets for Economists," Working Papers 02-3, Bank of Canada.
- Patrick M. Crowley, 2005.
"An intuitive guide to wavelets for economists,"
GE, Growth, Math methods
- Victor Gaiduch & Benjamin Hunt, 2000. "Inflation targeting under potential output uncertainty," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series DP2000/08, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
- Iris Claus, 2000. "Is the output gap a useful indicator of inflation?," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series DP2000/05, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
- Moisa Altar & Ciprian Necula & Gabriel Bobeica, 2009. "A Robust Assessment of the Romanian Business Cycle," Advances in Economic and Financial Research - DOFIN Working Paper Series 28, Bucharest University of Economics, Center for Advanced Research in Finance and Banking - CARFIB.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Reserve Bank of New Zealand Knowledge Centre).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.