The Effect of Private Tutoring Expenditures on Academic Performance: Evidence from a Nonparametric Bounding Method
AbstractThe causal relationship between educational investments and student outcomes continues to attract attention. The majority of studies have examined the effectiveness of public school expenditures or private school attendance on student outcomes. This paper contributes to the literature by examining the effectiveness of an unexplored dimension of educational inputs—private tutoring expenditures of South Korean parents. In the face of difficulties in causal estimation, the paper employs a nonparametric bounding method that is recently gaining popularity. With the method we show that the true effect of private tutoring remains at most modest. The tightest bounds suggest that a 10 percent increase in expenditure raises a student's test score by 0.764 percent at the largest. Such a modest effect remains similar across male and female students, and across students of different ability levels.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National University of Singapore, Department of Economics in its series Departmental Working Papers with number wp0706.
Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Private Tutoring; Test Scores; Nonparametric Bounds; South Korea;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
- C30 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - General
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