Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Validation of models: Statistical techniques and data availability


Author Info

  • Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    (Tilburg University)


This paper shows which statistical techniques can be used to validate simulation models, depending on which real-life data are available. Concerning this availability three situations are distinguished (i) no data, (ii) only output data, and (iii) both input and output data. In case (i) - no real data - the analysts can still experiment with the simulation model to obtain simulated data; such an experiment should be guided by the statistical theory on the design of experiments. In case (ii) - only output data - real and simulated output data can be compared through the well-known two-sample Student t statistic or certain other statistics. In case (iii) - input and output data - trace-driven simulation becomes possible, but validation should not proceed in the popular way (make a scatter plot with real and simulated outputs, fit a line, and test whether that line has unit slope and passes through the origin); alternative regression and bootstrap procedures are presented. Several case studies are summarized, to illustrate the three types of situations.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL:
Our checks indicate that this address may not be valid because: 404 Not Found. If this is indeed the case, please notify (Economists Online Support)
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tilburg University in its series Open Access publications from Tilburg University with number urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-81791.

as in new window
Date of creation: 1999
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-81791

Contact details of provider:
Web page:

Related research


Other versions of this item:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Kleijnen, J.P.C. & Pala, O., 1999. "Maximizing the simulation output: A competition," Open Access publications from Tilburg University, Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-80658, Tilburg University.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Federico Perali & Stefania Lovo, 2009. "Counterfactual analysis using a regional dynamic general equilibrium model with historical calibration," Working Papers, University of Verona, Department of Economics 58/2009, University of Verona, Department of Economics.
  2. Robinson, Stewart, 2002. "General concepts of quality for discrete-event simulation," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 103-117, April.
  3. Hertel, Thomas W. & Keeney, Roman & Valenzuela, Ernesto, 2004. "Global Analysis Of Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Assessing Model Validity," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association) 20199, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  4. Kleijnen, Jack P.C., 2011. "Ethical issues in engineering models: An operations researcher's reflections," Open Access publications from Tilburg University, Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4274966, Tilburg University.
  5. Kleijnen, J. P. C., 2001. "Ethical issues in modeling: Some reflections," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 130(1), pages 223-230, April.
  6. Hertel, Thomas, 2013. "Global Applied General Equilibrium Analysis Using the Global Trade Analysis Project Framework," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, Elsevier, Elsevier.
  7. van der Gaag, Monique A. & Vos, Fred & Saatkamp, Helmut W. & van Boven, Michiel & van Beek, Paul & Huirne, Ruud B. M., 2004. "A state-transition simulation model for the spread of Salmonella in the pork supply chain," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 156(3), pages 782-798, August.
  8. Happe, Kathrin, 2005. "Agent-Based Modelling and Sensitivity Analysis by Experimental Design and Metamodelling: An Application to Modelling Regional Structural Change," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark, European Association of Agricultural Economists 24464, European Association of Agricultural Economists.


This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


Access and download statistics


When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-81791. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Economists Online Support).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.