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Three-Gap Analysis of Structural Adjustment in Pakistan

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  • Iqbal, Z.

    (Tilburg University)

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    Abstract

    Abstract: This study addresses two specific sets of questions. The first main question that has occupied a number of researchers is whether the adjustment programs (advocated by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund) have had any positive effects to date on macroeconomic performance (i.e. on exports, imports, savings, investment, consumption, and gross domestic product) in Pakistan. The second main question posed here is whether and to what extent external factors aggravated the adjustment process. The purpose of this study has accordingly been to provide systematic quantitative evidence on these fundamental questions, using 1970 to 1993 as the period of observation. We use a three-gap framework to explore the contributions to macroeconomic performance of the adjustment policy reforms and external shocks. The individual and collective effects of adjustment policies and external shocks are measured through a number of simulation experiments. The central finding of the study is that in broad terms, the adjustment programs resulted in a substantial improvement in macroeconomic performance of Pakistan's economy. Furthermore, the adverse effects associated with external shocks appeared to have been severe during the adjustment process.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Tilburg University in its series Open Access publications from Tilburg University with number urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-73593.

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    Length: 263
    Date of creation: 1996
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Published
    Handle: RePEc:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-73593

    Note: Dissertation
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    Web page: http://www.tilburguniversity.edu/

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    Cited by:
    1. A.R. Kemal & Rehana Siddiqui & Rizwana Siddiqui, 2001. "Triff Reduction and Income Destribution A CGE-based Analysis for Urban and Rural Households in Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics 2001:181, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    2. Siddiqui, Rizwana & Iqbal, Zafar, 1999. "TARIFF REDUCTION AND FUNCTIONAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN PAKISTAN: A CGE Analysis," MPRA Paper 6141, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Siddiqui, Rizwana & Iqbal, Zafar, 1999. "Salient features of social accounting matrix of Pakistan for 1989-90: Disaggregation of the households sector," MPRA Paper 4454, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Zafar Iqbal, 1997. "Foreign Aid and the Public Sector: A Model of Fiscal Behaviour in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(2), pages 115-129.
    5. Iqbal, Zafar & James, Jeffrey & Pyatt, Graham, 2000. "Three-Gap Analysis of Structural Adjustment in Pakistan," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 117-138, January.
    6. Zafar Iqbal & Rizwana Siddiqui, 1998. "The Impact of Structural Adjustment on Income Distribution in Pakistan A SAM-based Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 377-397.
    7. Rizwana Siddiqui & Zafar Iqbal, 2001. "Tariff Reduction and Functional Income Distribution in Pakistan: A CGE Model," MIMAP Technical Paper Series, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics 2001:10, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.

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