Entry mode, organizational learning, and R&D in foreign affiliates: Evidence from Japanese firms
AbstractThis paper develops hypotheses concerning the role of entry mode and experience-based organizational learning as determinants of the R&D intensity of foreign affiliates and tests these hypotheses on a sample of 420 Japanese manufacturing affiliates abroad. Entry mode has a major impact on R&D activities: the R&D intensities of acquired affiliates substantially exceed those in wholly owned greenfield affiliates, while the R&D intensities of minority owned ventures are higher if Japanese parent firms lack strong R&D capabilities at home. For greenfield operations, support is found for an incremental growth pattern of foreign R&D as a function of organizational learning and affiliate capability building. The results are consistent with the view that part of the explanation for Japanese firms' relative lack of involvement in overseas R&D must be sought in their status as 'latecomers' in the establishment of overseas manufacturing networks. At the same time, a number of Japanese firms have actively used foreign acquisitions and joint ventures to gain access to overseas technology and to establish overseas R&D capabilities at a faster pace. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in its series Open Access publications from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven with number urn:hdl:123456789/101128.
Date of creation: Mar 2003
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Strategic management journal (2003-03) v.24, p.235-259
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Web page: http://www.kuleuven.be
r & d; entry mode; organizational learning; japanese firms; united-states; multinational-corporations; joint ventures; technology-transfer; swedish multinationals; internationalization; subsidiaries; enterprises; innovation; knowledge;
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