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Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition

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  • Robert J. Lemke
  • Ann Dryden Witte
  • Magaly Queralt
  • Robert Witt

Abstract

We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability of subsidized care and early education affect the probability that current and former welfare recipients will work. Regarding the child care market, we find that the cost, stability and quality of care matter. We also find that child care subsidies and some types of early education serve to increase employment. To be more specific, we find that increased funding for child care subsidies and the availability of full day kindergarten significantly increase the probability the current and former welfare recipients work.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 7583.

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Date of creation: Mar 2000
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:7583

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  1. Averett, S.L. & Peters, H.E. & Waldman, D.M., 1992. "Tax Credits, Labor Supply, and Child Care," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center, Chicago - Economics Research Center 92-9, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
  2. Kimmel, Jean, 1995. "The Effectiveness of Child-Care Subsidies in Encouraging the Welfare-to-Work Transition of Low-Income Single Mothers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 271-75, May.
  3. Connelly, Rachel, 1992. "The Effect of Child Care Costs on Married Women's Labor Force Participation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(1), pages 83-90, February.
  4. Ribar, D.C., 1990. "Child Care And The Labor Supply Of Married Women: Reducted Form Evidence," Papers, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics 9-90-9, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
  5. Berger, Mark C & Black, Dan A, 1992. "Child Care Subsidies, Quality of Care, and the Labor Supply of Low-Income, Single Mothers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 635-42, November.
  6. Ribar, D.C., 1993. "A Structural Model of Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women," Papers, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics 5-93-1, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
  7. Jean Kimmel, 1998. "Child Care Costs As A Barrier To Employment For Single And Married Mothers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(2), pages 287-299, May.
  8. Johansen, A-S & Leibowitz, A & Waite, L-J, 1996. "The Importance of Child-Care Characteristics to Choice of Care," Papers, RAND - Reprint Series 96-21, RAND - Reprint Series.
  9. Jean Kimmel, 1992. "Child Care and the Employment Behavior of Single and Married Mothers," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research 93-14, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
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Cited by:
  1. Ann Witte & Magaly Queralt & Robert Witt & Harriet Griesinger, 2002. "The Policy Context and Infant and Toddler Care in the Welfare Reform Era," NBER Working Papers 8893, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Rachel Connelly & Jean Kimmel, 2001. "The Effect of Child Care Costs on the Labor Force Participation and Welfare Recipiency of Single Mothers: Implications for Welfare Reform," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research 01-69, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  3. Rebecca M. Blank, 2002. "Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1105-1166, December.
  4. Ann Dryden Witte & Magaly Queralt, 2003. "Impacts of Eligibility Expansions and Provider Reimbursement Rate Increases on Child Care Subsidy Take-Up Rates, Welfare Use and Work," NBER Working Papers 9693, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Blau, David M. & Tekin, Erdal, 2001. "The Determinants and Consequences of Child Care Subsidies for Single Mothers," IZA Discussion Papers 383, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. David Blau & Erdal Tekin, 2007. "The determinants and consequences of child care subsidies for single mothers in the USA," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 719-741, October.
  7. Liu, Meirong & Anderson, Steven G., 2012. "Neighborhood effects on working mothers' child care arrangements," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 740-747.
  8. Waldfogel, Jane, 2004. "Welfare reform and the child welfare system," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 26(10), pages 919-939, October.

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