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Pharmaceutical Innovation, Mortality Reduction, and Economic Growth

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  • Frank R. Lichtenberg

Abstract

We perform an econometric investigation of the contribution of pharmaceutical innovation to mortality reduction and growth in lifetime per capita income. In both of the periods studied (1970-80 and 1980-91), there is a highly significant positive relationship across diseases between the increase in mean age at death (which is closely related to life expectancy) and rates of introduction of new, priority' (as defined by the FDA) drugs. The estimates imply that in the absence of pharmaceutical innovation, there would have been no increase and perhaps even a small decrease in mean age at death, and that new drugs have increased life expectancy, and lifetime income, by about 0.75-1.0% per annum. The drug innovation measures are also strongly positively related to the reduction in life-years lost in both periods. Some of the more conservative estimates imply that a one-time R&D expenditure of about $15 billion subsequently saves 1.6 million life-years per year, whose annual value is about $27 billion. All age groups benefited from the arrival of new drugs in at least one of the two periods. Controlling for growth in inpatient and ambulatory care utilization either has no effect on the drug coefficient or significantly increases it.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 6569.

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Date of creation: May 1998
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:6569

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  1. Frank R. Lichtenberg & Donald Siegel, 1991. "The Impact of R&D Investment On Productivity - New Evidence Using Linked R&D-LRD Data," NBER Working Papers 2901, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Zvi Griliches & Frank R. Lichtenberg, 1984. "R&D and Productivity Growth at the Industry Level: Is There Still a Relationship?," NBER Chapters, in: R & D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 465-502 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. David M. Cutler & Mark McClellan & Joseph P. Newhouse & Dahlia Remler, 1996. "Are Medical Prices Declining?," NBER Working Papers 5750, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hussinger, Katrin & Schneider, Cedric, 2008. "Commercializing Academic Research: The Qaulity of Faculty Patenting," Working Papers 05-2008, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics.
  2. K Blackburn & H Issa, 2002. "Endogenous Life Expectancy in a Simple Model of Growth," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 13, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
  3. Cervellati, Matteo & Sunde, Uwe, 2007. "Human Capital, Mortality and Fertility: A Unified Theory of the Economic and Demographic Transition," IZA Discussion Papers 2905, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Toole, Andrew A. & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2007. "Life Scientist Mobility from Academe to Industry: Does Academic Entrepreneurship Induce a Costly ?Brain Drain? on the Not-for-Profit Research Sector?," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-072, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  5. Cormac Ó Gráda, 2005. "The Tortoise and the Hare - Economic Growth in Britain and the Netherlands c. 1500-1800," Working Papers 200524, School Of Economics, University College Dublin.
  6. F. Lancia & G. Prarolo, 2007. "A Politico-Economic Model of Aging, Technology Adoption and Growth," Working Papers 590, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  7. Matteo Cervellati & Uwe Sunde, 2005. "Human Capital Formation, Life Expectancy, and the Process of Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(5), pages 1653-1672, December.
  8. James W Hughes & Michael J Moore & Edward A Snyder, 2003. "Napsterizing Pharmaceuticals: Access, Innovation and Consumer Welfare," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000555, David K. Levine.
  9. Lee G. Branstetter & Chirantan Chatterjee & Matthew Higgins, 2011. "Regulation and Welfare: Evidence from Paragraph IV Generic Entry in the Pharmaceutical Industry," NBER Working Papers 17188, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Cervellati, Matteo & Sunde, Uwe, 2002. "Human Capital Formation, Life Expectancy and the Process of Economic Development," IZA Discussion Papers 585, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. James W. Shaw & William C. Horrace & Ronald J. Vogel, 2002. "The Productivity of Pharmaceuticals in Improving Health: An Analysis of the OECD Health Data," HEW 0206001, EconWPA, revised 11 May 2003.
  12. K Blackburn & R Sarmah, 2005. "Public Expenditures, Bureaucratic Corruption and Economic Development," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 55, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.

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