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Within Group "Structural" Tests of Labor-Market Discrimination: A Study of Persons with Serious Disabilities

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  • David S. Salkever
  • Marisa E. Domino
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    Abstract

    Labor-market discrimination measures are usually derived from between-group comparisons of market outcomes for favored vs. disfavored groups, controlling for productivity-related individual characteristics. When the disfavored group is heterogeneous, one can relate variations in discrimination intensity to market outcomes within the disfavored group. We use this approach to test for employment and wage discrimination against persons with various types of disabilities. Measures of social distance' controls for the intensity of discrimination. In a national sample of adults with serious disabilities, employment discrimination effects are in the wrong' direction, however, and wage effects are unstable. Thus, variability in labor market outcomes among different types of disabilities is not explained well by variations in discrimination intensity correlated with social distance and employer attitudes. We conjecture that differences in available support services by type of disability may help to explain this variability.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5931.

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    Date of creation: Feb 1997
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    Publication status: published as Salkever, David S. and Alan Sorkin (eds.) The economics of disability, Research in Human Capital and Development, vol. 13. Stamford, CT: JAI Press, 2000.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5931

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    1. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
    2. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226041162, February.
    3. Marjorie Baldwin & William G. Johnson, 1994. "Labor Market Discrimination against Men with Disabilities," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(1), pages 1-19.
    4. Biddle, Jeff E & Hamermesh, Daniel S, 1998. "Beauty, Productivity, and Discrimination: Lawyers' Looks and Lucre," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 172-201, January.
    5. R. V. Burkhauser & R. H. Haveman & B. L. Wolfe, . "How people with disabilities fare when public policies change," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty 974-92, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    6. Ayres, Ian & Siegelman, Peter, 1995. "Race and Gender Discrimination in Bargaining for a New Car," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 304-21, June.
    7. Nakamura, Masao & Nakamura, Alice & Cullen, Dallas, 1979. "Job Opportunities, the Offered Wage, and the Labor Supply of Married Women," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 69(5), pages 787-805, December.
    8. Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
    9. Daniel S. Hamermesh & Jeff E. Biddle, 1993. "Beauty and the Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 4518, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. William G. Johnson & James Lambrinos, 1985. "Wage Discrimination against Handicapped Men and Women," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(2), pages 264-277.
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    Cited by:
    1. Marjorie Baldwin & Edward J. Schumacher, 1999. "Job Mobility among Workers with Disabilities," Working Papers, East Carolina University, Department of Economics 9911, East Carolina University, Department of Economics.

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