Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Target Zones and Exchange Rates: An Empirical Investigation

Contents:

Author Info

  • Geert Bekaert
  • Stephen F. Gray

Abstract

In this paper we develop an empirical model of exchange rates in a target zone. The model is general enough to nest most theoretical and empirical models in the existing literature. We find evidence of two types of jumps in exchange rates. Realignment jumps are those that are associated with the periodic realignments of the target zone and within-the-band jumps are those that can be accommodated within the current target zone. The exchange rate may jump outside the current target zone band, in the case of a realignment, but when no jump occurs the target zone is credible (there is zero probability of a realignment) and the exchange rate must stay within the band. We incorporate jumps, in general, by conditioning the distribution of exchange rate changes on a jump variable where the probability and size of a jump vary over time as a function of financial and macroeconomic variables. With this more general model, we revisit the empirical evidence from the European Monetary System regarding the conditional distribution of exchange rate changes, the credibility of the system, and the size of the foreign exchange risk premia. In contrast to some previous findings, we conclude that the FF/DM rate exhibits considerable non-linearities, realignments are predictable and the credibility of the system did not increase after 1987. Moreover, our model implies that the foreign exchange risk premium becomes large during speculative crises. A comparison with the Deutschemark/Dollar rate suggests that an explicit target zone does have a noticeable effect on the time-series behavior of exchange rates.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w5445.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5445.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: Apr 1999
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Journal of International Economics, Vol. 45 (June 1998): 1-35.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5445

Note: AP IFM
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Phone: 617-868-3900
Email:
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords:

Other versions of this item:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Bertola, Giuseppe & Svensson, Lars E O, 1991. "Stochastic Devaluation Risk and the Empirical Fit of Target Zone Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 513, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Rose, Andrew K & Svensson, Lars E O, 1993. "European Exchange Rate Credibility Before the Fall," CEPR Discussion Papers 852, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Philippe Jorion, 1988. "On Jump Processes in the Foreign Exchange and Stock Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(4), pages 427-445.
  4. Bekaert, Geert, 1995. "The Time Variation of Expected Returns and Volatility in Foreign-Exchange Markets," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(4), pages 397-408, October.
  5. Andrew K. Rose & Lars E.O. Svensson, 1991. "Expected and predicted realignments: the FF/DM exchange rate during the EMS," International Finance Discussion Papers 395, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. de Jong, F, 1994. "A Univariate Analysis of EMS Exchange Rates Using a Target Zone Model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(1), pages 31-45, Jan.-Marc.
  7. Robert P. Flood & Peter M. Garber, 1989. "The Linkage Between Speculative Attack and Target Zone Models of Exchange Rates," NBER Working Papers 2918, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Donald J. Mathieson & Robert P. Flood & Andrew K. Rose, 1991. "An Empirical Exploration of Exchange Rate Target-Zones," IMF Working Papers 91/15, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Ball, Clifford A. & Roma, Antonio, 1994. "Target zone modelling and estimation for European Monetary System exchange rates," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(3-4), pages 385-420, July.
  10. Svensson, L.E.O., 1989. "Target Zones And Interest Rate Variability," Papers 457, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
  11. Jong, F.C.J.M. de, 1994. "A univariate analysis of EMS exchange rates using a target zone model," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-384515, Tilburg University.
  12. Froot, Kenneth A. & Obstfeld, Maurice, 1991. "Exchange-rate dynamics under stochastic regime shifts : A unified approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3-4), pages 203-229, November.
  13. Neumann, Manfred J. M., 1984. "Intervention in the mark/dollar market: the authorities' reaction function," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 223-239, August.
  14. Beetsma, Roel M W J & van der Ploeg, Frederick, 1994. "Intramarginal Interventions, Bands and the Pattern of EMS Exchange Rate Distributions," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 35(3), pages 583-602, August.
  15. Bertola, Giuseppe & Caballero, Ricardo J, 1992. "Target Zones and Realignments," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 520-36, June.
  16. Flandreau, Marc, 1996. "The Burden of Intervention: Externalities in Multilateral Exchange Rates Arrangements," CEPR Discussion Papers 1504, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Lars E.O. Svensson, 1990. "The Term Structure of Interest Rate Differentials in a Target Zone: Theory and Swedish Data," NBER Working Papers 3374, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Giavazzi, Francesco & Pagano, Marco, 1988. "The advantage of tying one's hands : EMS discipline and Central Bank credibility," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 1055-1075, June.
  19. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1987. "Recent Estimates of Time-Variation in the Conditional Variance and in the Exchange Risk Premium," NBER Working Papers 2367, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Fratianni, M. & Von Hagen, J. & Waller, C., 1992. "The Maastricht Way to EMU," Princeton Studies in International Economics 187, International Economics Section, Departement of Economics Princeton University,.
  21. Andrew K. Rose, 1993. "European exchange rate credibility before the fall: the case of sterling," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue may7.
  22. Melitz, Jacques, 1990. "Financial deregulation in France," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(2-3), pages 394-402, May.
  23. Collins, S.M., 1992. "The Expected Timing of EMS Realignments: 1979-83," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1591, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  24. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
  25. Krugman, Paul R, 1991. "Target Zones and Exchange Rate Dynamics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(3), pages 669-82, August.
  26. Beetsma, R.M.W.J. & Ploeg, F. van der, 1992. "Exchange rate bands and optimal monetary accomodation under a dirty float," Discussion Paper 1992-13, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  27. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1985. "A method for calculating bounds on the asymptotic covariance matrices of generalized method of moments estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 203-238.
  28. Hansen, Bruce E, 1992. "The Likelihood Ratio Test under Nonstandard Conditions: Testing the Markov Switching Model of GNP," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(S), pages S61-82, Suppl. De.
  29. Zhaohui Chen & Alberto Giovannini, 1992. "Estimating Expected Exchange Rates Under Target Zones," NBER Working Papers 3955, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  30. Susan M. Collins, 1992. "The Expected Timing of EMS Realignments: 1979-83," NBER Working Papers 4068, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Frankel, Jeffrey & Phillips, Steven, 1992. "The European Monetary System: Credible at Last?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(4), pages 791-816, October.
  32. Bossaerts, Peter & Hillion, Pierre, 1991. "Market Microstructure Effects of Government Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(3), pages 513-41.
  33. Geert Bekaert & Stephen F. Gray, 1999. "Target Zones and Exchange Rates: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 5445, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  34. Bollerslev, Tim & Chou, Ray Y. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1992. "ARCH modeling in finance : A review of the theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 5-59.
  35. Bertola, Giuseppe & Caballero, Ricardo, 1991. "Sustainable Intervention Policies and Exchange Rate Dynamics," CEPR Discussion Papers 504, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  36. Paul Krugman & Marcus Miller, 1992. "Exchange Rate Targets and Currency Bands," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number krug92-1, October.
  37. Richard Meese & Kenneth Rogoff, 1981. "Empirical exchange rate models of the seventies: are any fit to survive?," International Finance Discussion Papers 184, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  38. Bartolini, Leonardo & Bodnar, Gordon M., 1992. "Target zones and forward rates in a model with repeated realignments," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 373-408, December.
  39. Nieuwland, Frederick G M C & Verschoor, Willem F C & Wolff, Christian C P, 1994. "Stochastic trends and jumps in EMS exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 699-727, December.
  40. Tauchen, George, 1986. "Statistical Properties of Generalized Method-of-Moments Estimators of Structural Parameters Obtained from Financial Market Data," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 4(4), pages 397-416, October.
  41. Frankel, Jeffrey A., 1988. "Recent Estimates of the Time-Variation in the Conditional Variance and in the Exchange Risk Premium," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt23c9q73d, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  42. Ball, Clifford A. & Roma, Antonio, 1993. "A jump diffusion model for the European monetary system," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 475-492, October.
  43. Lars E. O. Svensson, 1992. "An Interpretation of Recent Research on Exchange Rate Target Zones," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(4), pages 119-144, Fall.
  44. Bekaert, Geert, 1994. "Exchange rate volatility and deviations from unbiasedness in a cash-in-advance model," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 29-52, February.
  45. Francisco Delgado & Bernard Dumas, 1991. "Target Zones Big and Small," NBER Working Papers 3601, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5445. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.