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U.S.-Mexico Integration and Regional Economies: Evidence from Border- City Pairs

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  • Gordon H. Hanson

Abstract

In this paper, I examine whether U.S.-Mexico economic integration is causing economic activity in the United States to relocate to the U.S.-Mexico border region. The approach I take is to study U.S.- Mexico border-city pairs. Border cities are natural laboratories in which to study the effects of trade policy. To the extent transport costs are the main non-trade policy barriers to trade, we expect regional economic integration to cause economic activity in border cities to expand. I exploit the fact that U.S.-Mexico integration has effectively been underway since the early 1980s. A large portion of U.S.-Mexico trade is the result of U.S. multinationals establishing export assembly operations in Mexico. Mexico's export assembly plants are concentrated in cities on the U.S.-Mexico border. The question I ask is whether the growth of export manufacturing in Mexican border cities increases the demand for goods and services produced in neighboring U.S. border cities. I estimate demand links between Mexican and U.S. border cities using data on the six largest border- city pairs over the period 1975-1989. The results indicate that the growth of export manufacturing in Mexico can account for a substantial portion of employment growth, in general, and of manufacturing employment growth, in particular, in U.S. border cities over the sample period. This suggests that NAFTA will contribute to the formation of binational regional production centers along the U.S.- Mexico border.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 5425.

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Date of creation: Jan 1996
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Publication status: published as Hanson, Gordon H. "U.S.-Mexico Integration And Regional Economies: Evidence From Border-City Pairs," Journal of Urban Economics, 2001, v50(2,Sep), 259-287.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5425

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  1. Krugman, Paul & Venables, Anthony J., 1990. "Integration and the Competitiveness of Peripheral Industry," CEPR Discussion Papers 363, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. repec:fth:michin:312 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1982. "Systems of cities in closed and open economies," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 325-350, August.
  4. Brown, D.K. & Deardorff, A.V. & Stern, R.M., 1992. "North American Integration," Working Papers 312, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  5. Borjas, George J. & Bronars, Stephen G. & Trejo, Stephen J., 1992. "Self-selection and internal migration in the United States," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 159-185, September.
  6. Krugman, Paul & Elizondo, Raul Livas, 1996. "Trade policy and the Third World metropolis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 137-150, April.
  7. Griliches, Zvi, 1986. "Economic data issues," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 25, pages 1465-1514 Elsevier.
  8. Krugman, Paul & Venables, Anthony J., 1996. "Integration, specialization, and adjustment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 959-967, April.
  9. P Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 1993. "Intergration," CEP Discussion Papers dp0172, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  10. Griliches, Zvi & Hausman, Jerry A., 1986. "Errors in variables in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 93-118, February.
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Cited by:
  1. Yushi Yoshida & Hiro Ito, 2005. "Distance on FDI and Trade: The Roles of China and Mexico in the Pacific Basin," Discussion Papers 24, Kyushu Sangyo University, Faculty of Economics.
  2. Gordon H. Hanson, 1995. "The Effects of Offshore Assembly on Industry Location: Evidence from U.S. Border Cities," NBER Working Papers 5400, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Nicole Madariaga & Sylvie Montout & Patrice Ollivaud, 2004. "Regional convergence, trade liberalization and agglomeration of activities : an analysis of NAFTA and MERCOSUR cases," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques bla04069, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  4. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00096821 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Engel, Dirk, 1999. "Der Einfluß der Grenznähe auf die Standortwahl von Unternehmen: Eine theoretische Analyse und empirische Befunde für Ostdeutschland," ZEW Discussion Papers 99-18, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  6. Andrzej Cieslik, Bartlomiej Rokicki, 2013. "Regional structure of wages in Poland over the period 1995-2009," Equilibrium, Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, vol. 8, pages 65-78.
  7. Peter Huber, 2008. "Did previous EU-enlargements change the regional distribution of production? An empirical analysis of three enlargement episodes," International Journal of Public Policy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(3/4), pages 187-206.
  8. Marius Brülhart, . "The Spatial Effects of Trade Openness: A Survey," Discussion Papers 10/10, University of Nottingham, GEP.
  9. Hongbin Li & Lei Li & Binzhen Wu & Yanyan Xiong, 2012. "The End of Cheap Chinese Labor," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(4), pages 57-74, Fall.
  10. Ann Harrison & Andrés Rodríguez-Clare, 2009. "Trade, Foreign Investment, and Industrial Policy for Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 15261, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Dascher, Kristof & Haupt, Alexander, 2011. "The political economy of regional integration projects at borders where poor and rich meet: The role of cross-border shopping and community sorting," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 148-164, January.
  12. Åslund, Olof & Engdahl, Mattias, 2013. "1 Open borders, transport links and local labor markets," Working Paper Series, Center for Labor Studies 2013:7, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  13. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00586834 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Thomas M. Fullerton Jr & Azucena González Monzón & Adam G. Walke, 2013. "Physical Infrastructure and Economic Growth in El Paso," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 27(4), pages 363-373, November.
  15. Baylis, Katherine R. & Garduno-Rivera, Rafael & Piras, Gianfranco, 2009. "The distributional effects of NAFTA in Mexico: evidence from a panel of municipalities," 2009 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, 2009, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 49463, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  16. Chintal Desai & Andre Mollick, 2014. "On Consumer Credit Outcomes in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 91-115, February.
  17. Miren Lafourcade & Elisenda Paluzie Hernandez, 2005. "European Integration, FDI and the Internal Geography of Trade: Evidence from Western European Border Regions," Working Papers in Economics 145, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.

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