Do 401(k) Contributions Crowd Out Other Persoanl Saving?
AbstractDuring the late 1980s. contributions to 401(k) plans eclipsed contributions to Individual Retirement Accounts as the leading form of tax-deferred individual retirement saving. This paper uses data from the 1984. 1987. and 1991 Surveys of Income and Program Participation to describe patterns of participation in and contributions to 401(k) plans. and to evaluate the net impact of these contributions on personal saving. We find that 401(k) participation conditional on eligibility exceeds sixty percent at all income levels. This pattern contrasts with Individual Retirement Accounts in the early 1980s. which exhibited a sharply rising profile of participation across income groups. We study the net effect of 401(k) contributions on personal saving by comparing the growth of non-401(k) assets for contributors and noncontributors. and by comparing the level of wealth for families who are eligible for 401(k)s with that of those who are not. We find little evidence that 401(k) contributions substitute for other forms of private saving. We also explore the substitutability of 401(k) contributions for IRA contributions. and revisit the question of whether IRAs substitute for other types of saving. Our findings suggest little substitution on either margin.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 4391.
Date of creation: Jun 1993
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Journal of Public Economics, vol. 58, (1995), pp. 1-32
Note: AG PE
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Poterba, James M. & Venti, Steven F. & Wise, David A., 1995. "Do 401(k) contributions crowd out other personal saving?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 1-32, September.
- E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
- G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Poterba, J.M. & Venti, S.F. & Wise, D.A., 1992.
"401(k) Plans and Tax-Deferred Savings,"
92-14, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Steven F. Venti & David A. Wise, 1991. "The Saving Effect of Tax-deferred Retirement Accounts: Evidence from SIPP," NBER Chapters, in: National Saving and Economic Performance, pages 103-130 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gale, W.G. & Scholz, J.K., 1990.
"Iras And Household Savings,"
9009, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Gale, W.G. & scholz, J.K., 1992. "IRAS and Household Saving," Papers 9244, Tilburg - Center for Economic Research.
- Gale, W.G. & Scholz, J.K., 1990. "Ira'S And Households Saving," Papers 16, California Los Angeles - Applied Econometrics.
- Gale, W.G. & Scholtz, J.K., 1992. "IRAs and household saving," Discussion Paper 1992-44, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Shefrin, Hersh M & Thaler, Richard H, 1988. "The Behavioral Life-Cycle Hypothesis," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(4), pages 609-43, October.
- Steven F. Venti & David A. Wise, 1992. "Government Policy and Personal Retirement Saving," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 6, pages 1-42 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hilary W. Hoynes & Daniel L. McFadden, 1996.
"The Impact of Demographics on Housing and Nonhousing Wealth in the United States,"
in: The Economic Effects of Aging in the United States and Japan, pages 153-194
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hilary Williamson Hoynes & Daniel McFadden, 1994. "The Impact of Demographics on Housing and Non-Housing Wealth in the United States," NBER Working Papers 4666, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David A. Wise & Steven F. Venti, 1993.
"The Wealth of Cohorts: Retirement Saving and the Changing Assets of Older Americans,"
NBER Working Papers
4600, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Steven F. Venti & David A. Wise, 1996. "The Wealth of Cohorts: Retirement Saving and the Changing Assets of Older Americans," NBER Working Papers 5609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jerry A. Hausman & James M. Poterba, 1986.
"Household Behavior and the Tax Reform Act of 1986,"
437, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Andrea L. Kusko & James M. Poterba & David W. Wilcox, 1994. "Employee Decisions with Respect to 401(k) Plans: Evidence From Individual-Level Data," NBER Working Papers 4635, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- B. Douglas Bernheim & John B. Shoven, 1988.
"Pension Funding and Saving,"
in: Pensions in the U.S. Economy, pages 85-114
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Venti, Steven F & Wise, David A, 1990.
"Have IRAs Increased U.S. Saving? Evidence from Consumer Expenditure Surveys,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 105(3), pages 661-98, August.
- Steven F. Venti & David A. Wise, 1987. "Have IRAs Increased U.S. Saving?: Evidence from Consumer Expenditure Surveys," NBER Working Papers 2217, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.