Union Threat Effects and Nonunion Industry Wage Differentials
AbstractWe investigate the impact of union strength on changes in nonunion wages and employment. The prevailing model in this area is the threat model, which predicts that increases in union strength cause increases in nonunion wages and decreases in nonunion employment. In testing the threat model, we are also testing two alternatives, the crowding and complements models. In contrast to the prediction of the threat model, decreases in the percent organized (reflecting a declining union threat) are associated with increases in the nonunion wage. Furthermore, increases in union wages appear to decrease, rather than to increase, nonunion wages. Evidence on the determinants of intra-industry variation in nonunion wage premia is somewhat more consistent with the crowding model and is strikingly consistent with the complements model of union and nonunion wage determination. Further evidence on the determinants of intra-industry variation in nonunion employment is consistent with the complements model and the threat model; movements in nonunion industry employment are negatively related to changes in proxies for union strength. Thus, the combined evidence supports the complements model, but neither the threat model nor the crowding model.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 4046.
Date of creation: Apr 1992
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- William T. Dickens & Lawrence F. Katz, 1987. "Interindustry Wage Differences and Industry Characteristics," NBER Working Papers 2014, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Peter D. Linneman & Michael L. Wachter & William H. Carter, 1990. "Evaluating the evidence on union employment and wages," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 44(1), pages 34-53, October.
- Krueger, Alan B & Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Efficiency Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 259-93, March.
- Rosen, Sherwin, 1969. "Trade Union Power, Threat Effects and the Extent of Organization," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(106), pages 185-96, April.
- Richard B. Freeman, 1985.
"The Effect of the Union Wage Differential on Management Opposition and Union Organizing Success,"
NBER Working Papers
1748, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Freeman, Richard B, 1986. "The Effect of the Union Wage Differential on Management Opposition and Union Organizing Success," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 92-96, May.
- Lawrence M. Kahn, 1978. "The effect of unions on the earnings of nonunion workers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 31(2), pages 205-216, January.
- Montgomery, Edward, 1989. "Employment and Unemployment Effects of Unions," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(2), pages 170-90, April.
- Akerlof, George A, 1982. "Labor Contracts as Partial Gift Exchange," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 97(4), pages 543-69, November.
- Freeman, Richard B & Medoff, James L, 1981. "The Impact of the Percentage Organized on Union and Nonunion Wages," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(4), pages 561-72, November.
- William T. Dickens, 1986. "Wages, Employment and the Threat of Collective Action by Workers," NBER Working Papers 1856, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- William T. Dickens & Brian A. Ross, 1984. "Consistent Estimation Using Data From More Than One Sample," NBER Technical Working Papers 0033, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jagadeesh Gokhale & Erica L. Groshen & David Neumark, 1992.
"Do hostile takeovers reduce extramarginal wage payments?,"
9215, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
- Gokhale, Jagadeesh & Groshen, Erica L & Neumark, David, 1995. "Do Hostile Takeovers Reduce Extramarginal Wage Payments?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 77(3), pages 470-85, August.
- Jagadeesh Gokhale & Erica L. Groshen & David Neumark, 1993. "Do Hostile Takeovers Reduce Extramarginal Wage Payments?," NBER Working Papers 4346, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Neumark & Steven A. Sharpe, 1992.
"Hostile Takeovers and Expropriation of Extramarginal Wages: A Test,"
NBER Working Papers
4101, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Neumark & Steven A. Sharpe, 1992. "Hostile takeovers and expropriation of extramarginal wages: a test," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 197, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Corneo, Giacomo & Lucifora, Claudio, 1997.
"Wage formation under union threat effects: Theory and empirical evidence,"
Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 265-292, September.
- Corneo Giacomo & Lucifora Claudio, 1993. "Wage formation under union threat effects : theory and empirical evidence," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9318, CEPREMAP.
- John DiNardo & Kevin F. Hallock, 2000. "When Unions "Mattered": Assessing the Impact of Strikes on Financial Markets: 1925-1937," NBER Working Papers 7794, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.