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The Effect of Age at School Entry on Educational Attainment: An Application of Instrumental Variables with Moments from Two Samples

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  • Joshua D. Angrist
  • Alan B. Krueger

Abstract

This paper tests the hypothesis that compulsory school attendance laws, which typically require school attendance until a specified birthday, induce a relationship between the years of schooling and age at school entry. Variation in school start age created by children's date of birth provides a natural experiment for estimation of the effect of age at school entry. Because no large data set contains information on both age at school entry and educational attainment, we use an Instrumental Variables (IV) estimator with data derived from the 1960 and 1980 Censuses to test the age-at-entry/compulsory schooling model. In most IV applications, the two covariance matrices that form the estimator are constructed from the same sample. We use a method of moments framework to discuss IV estimators that combine moments from different data sets. In our application, quarter of birth dummies are the instrumental variables used to link the 1960 Census, from which age at school entry can be derived for one cohort of students, to the 1980 Census, which contains educational attainment for the same cohort of students. The results suggest that roughly 10 percent of students were constrained to stay in school by compulsory schooling laws.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 3571.

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Date of creation: Dec 1990
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Publication status: published as "Age at School Entry", Journal of American Statistical Association, Volume 57, No.412, pp.11 June 1992
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:3571

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  1. K. Newey, Whitney, 1985. "Generalized method of moments specification testing," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 229-256, September.
  2. Angrist, Joshua D., 1991. "Grouped-data estimation and testing in simple labor-supply models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 47(2-3), pages 243-266, February.
  3. Micklewright, John, 1989. "Choice at Sixteen," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 56(221), pages 25-39, February.
  4. Chamberlain, Gary, 1982. "Multivariate regression models for panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 5-46, January.
  5. Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987. "Hypothesis Testing with Efficient Method of Moments Estimation," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 28(3), pages 777-87, October.
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