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International Impacts on Domestic Political Economy: A Case of Japanese General Elections


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  • Takatoshi Ito


The objective of this paper is twofold. First, this paper emphasizes that in a parliamentary system, such as in Japan, election timings become endogenous, in that good economic performances tend to trigger elections. Second, impacts of international factors, such as foreign exchange reserves and elections of the United States, on domestic economic performances will be examined in the context of political business cycles. This paper finds only a limited link between economic performances and international variables, except one that upcoming elections in the United States tend to cause a higher rate of growth in Japan. Evidence suggests that although blatant policies, such as a beggar-thy-neighbor policy, were not adopted, a more subtle international cooperation, in the form of Japanese expansion to pill up the United States economy, have been used.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 3499.

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Date of creation: Aug 1991
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Journal of International Money and Finance, Vol. 10, pp. S73-S89, (1991).
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:3499

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  1. Terrones, M.E., 1989. "Macroeconomic Policy Cycles Under Alternative Electoral Structures," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics 8905, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
  2. Nordhaus, William D, 1975. "The Political Business Cycle," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 169-90, April.
  3. William D. Nordhaus, 1989. "Alternative Approaches to the Political Business Cycle," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University 927, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  4. Thomas F. Cargill & Michael M. Hutchison, 1988. "Political business cycles in a parliamentary setting: the case of Japan," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 88-08, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  5. Ito, Takatoshi & Park, Jin Hyuk, 1988. "Political business cycles in the parliamentary system," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 233-238.
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