Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Asymmetries in Policy Between Exportables and Import-Competing Goods


Author Info

  • Anne O. Krueger
Registered author(s):


    This paper reexamines current understanding of the political economy of protection. To date, work has centered on determinants of the height of protection and its form - tariffs, quantitative restrictions, and voluntary export restraints. It is argued that examining the structure of protection misses one important piece of evidence - why import-competing industries tend to be more highly protected than industries producing exportables. When the question is cast in this light, a number of new insights emerge, including the importance of earlier protective measures in influencing current protectionist pressures. "Identity bias", whereby political decisions can be asymmetric between winners and losers, depending on whose identity is known, is introduced.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 2904.

    as in new window
    Date of creation: Apr 1990
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: published as The Political Economy of International Trade: Essays in Honor of Robert E. Baldwin. edited by Ronald W. Jones and Anne O. Krueger, pp. 161-178. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2904

    Note: ITI IFM
    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
    Phone: 617-868-3900
    Web page:
    More information through EDIRC

    Related research



    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Baldwin, Robert E, 1969. "The Case against Infant-Industry Tariff Protection," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(3), pages 295-305, May/June.
    2. Becker, Gary S, 1983. "A Theory of Competition among Pressure Groups for Political Influence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 98(3), pages 371-400, August.
    3. Mayer, Wolfgang, 1984. "Endogenous Tariff Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 74(5), pages 970-85, December.
    4. Bela Balassa, 1965. "Tariff Protection in Industrial Countries: An Evaluation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 573.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. Levy, Philip I., 1999. "Lobbying and international cooperation in tariff setting," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 345-370, April.
    2. Amelia U. Santos-Paulino, 2000. "Trade Liberalisation and Export Performance in Selected Developing Countries," Studies in Economics, Department of Economics, University of Kent 0012, Department of Economics, University of Kent.
    3. Patricio Meller, 2009. "From unilateral liberalization to regional free trade agreements: a Latin America perspective," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 85-103, May.
    4. Richard E. Baldwin & Frederic Robert-Nicoud, 2002. "Entry and Asymmetric Lobbying: Why Governments Pick Losers," NBER Working Papers 8756, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Peter Nedergaard, 2006. "Market Failures and Government Failures: A Theoretical Model of the Common Agricultural Policy," Public Choice, Springer, Springer, vol. 127(3), pages 385-405, June.
    6. Raquel Fernandez & Dani Rodrik, 1990. "Why is Trade Reform so Unpopular? On Status Quo Bias in Policy Reforms," NBER Working Papers 3269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Olper, Alessandro & Raimondi, Valentina, 2013. "Electoral rules, forms of government and redistributive policy: Evidence from agriculture and food policies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 141-158.
    8. L. Alan Winters, 2000. "Trade Liberalisation and Poverty," PRUS Working Papers, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex 07, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    9. Florian Mayneris & Thierry Mayer & Philippe Martin, 2008. "Public support to clusters : a firm level study of French "local productive systems"," Sciences Po publications 7102, Sciences Po.
    10. Vanberg, Viktor, 1990. "A Constitutional Political Economy Perspective on International Trade," 1990: The Environment, Government Policies, and International Trade Meeting, December 1990, San Diego, CA, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium 50875, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    11. Winters, L. Alan, 2000. "Trade, Trade Policy and Poverty: What Are The Links?," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 2382, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Peter Nedergaard, 2009. "European Union Import Quotas on Chinese Textile and Clothing Exports in 2005: A Panic-Driven Commission or Rational Explanations?," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 17-47, March.


    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


    Access and download statistics


    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2904. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.