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Keynesian, New Keynesian, and New Classical Economics

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  • Bruce C. Greenwald
  • Joseph E. Stiglitz

Abstract

Much of the new theory of macro-economics that has been built upon micro-economic models of imperfect information leads to conclusions which are surprisingly close in spirit to Keynes' original analysis. This paper summarizes the macro-economic implications of information-based models of efficiency wages, credit-rationing and the breakdown of financial markets for equity-type securities. It shows how these models lead to behavior by firms and interactions among economic agents that account for many of the phenomena identified by Keynes in qualitative terms which were largely lost in subsequent formalizations of the Keynesian model. These imperfect information macro-models provide consistent theoretical explanations in the Keynesian spirit in unemployment, investment concentrated business cycles, rigid prices and the effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy interventions. In doing so, they reconcile macro and micro-economic analysis in a way that has so far been achieved neither by the traditional Keynesians, who assumed away the micro-dimension of the problem, nor by the new classical economists who assumed away the macro-dimension of the problem.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 2160.

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Date of creation: Feb 1987
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Publication status: published as Greenwald, Bruce and Joseph E. Stiglitz. "Keynesian, New Keynesian and New Classical Economics," Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 39, 1987, pp. 119-132.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2160

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  1. Greenwald, Bruce C & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1986. "Externalities in Economies with Imperfect Information and Incomplete Markets," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(2), pages 229-64, May.
  2. Bruce Greenwald & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1987. "Money, Imperfect Information and Economic Fluctuations," NBER Working Papers 2188, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
  4. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
  5. Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1983. "On the Relevance or Irrelevance of Public Financial Policy: Indexation,Price Rigidities and Optimal Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 1106, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1985. "Credit Markets and the Control of Capital," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(2), pages 133-52, May.
  7. Akerlof, George A, 1970. "The Market for 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500, August.
  8. Akerlof, George A & Yellen, Janet L, 1985. "A Near-rational Model of the Business Cycle, with Wage and Price Intertia," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 100(5), pages 823-38, Supp..
  9. Barro, Robert J & Grossman, Herschel I, 1971. "A General Disequilibrium Model of Income and Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 82-93, March.
  10. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1983. "Incentive Effects of Terminations: Applications to the Credit and Labor Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 912-27, December.
  11. Alan S. Blinder & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1983. "Money, Credit Constraints, and Economic Activity," NBER Working Papers 1084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1987. "The Causes and Consequences of the Dependence of Quality on Price," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 1-48, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Roger Backhouse & Mauro Boianovsky, 2005. "Disequilibrium Macroeconomics: An Episode In The Transformation Of Modern Macroeconomics," Anais do XXXIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 33th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 012, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  2. Carabelli, Anna Maria & Cedrini, Mario Aldo, 2013. "Keynes's General Theory, Treatise on Money and Tract on Monetary Reform: Different Theories, Same Methodological Approach?," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201344, University of Turin.
  3. Miglierina Enrico & Molho Elena, 2002. "Well-posedness and convexity in vector optimization," Economics and Quantitative Methods qf0221, Department of Economics, University of Insubria.
  4. Fernando Tenjo Galarza & Enrique López Enciso, 2002. "Burbuja Y Estancamiento Del Credito En Colombia," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 002072, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  5. Guerrazzi, Marco & Meccheri, Nicola, 2012. "From wage rigidity to labour market institution rigidity: A turning-point in explaining unemployment?," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 189-197.
  6. Georgios Argitis, 2008. "Finance, Investment and Macroeconomic Performance," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1-2), pages 71-88.
  7. Robert Flood & Michael Mussa, 1994. "Issues Concerning Nominal Anchors for Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 4850, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Roberto Tamborini, 1997. "A macroeconomic model of bankruptcy," CEEL Working Papers 9702, Cognitive and Experimental Economics Laboratory, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
  9. Floro Ernesto Caroleo, 2004. "Fondamenti teorici della rigidità salariale nell'ambito dei non market clearing models," STUDI ECONOMICI, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2004(83).
  10. Riccardo Fiorentini & Roberto Tamborini, 2001. "The Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Italy: The Credit Channel and a Missing Ring," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 60(1), pages 1-42, June.
  11. Georg Winckler, 1988. "Neustrukturierung der keynesianischen Theorie?," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 14(2), pages 183-196.
  12. Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1989. "Money, Credit, and Business Fluctuations," NBER Working Papers 2823, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Bertocco Giancarlo, 2004. "Are banks really special? A note on the theory of financial intermediaries," Economics and Quantitative Methods qf04021, Department of Economics, University of Insubria.
  14. R.Fiorentini & R.Tamborini, 2000. "Monetary policy, credit and aggregate supply: the evidence from Italy," General Economics and Teaching 0004008, EconWPA.
  15. J. Barkley Rosser, 2003. "A Nobel Prize for Asymmetric Information: The economic contributions of George Akerlof, Michael Spence and Joseph Stiglitz," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 3-21.
  16. Andaluz-Alcazar, Alvaro, 2012. "Choix d'investissement sous incertitude des gestionnaires des réseaux de distribution (GRD) en Europe à l'horizon 2030," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/10862 edited by Keppler, Jan Horst.
  17. Fernando Tenjo & Enrique López, 2003. "Credit bubble and stagnation in Colombia, 1990-2001," COLOMBIAN ECONOMIC JOURNAL, UN - RCE - CID.

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