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Dividend and Share Changes: Is There a Financing Hierarchy?

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  • Robert L. McDonald
  • Naomi Soderstrom
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    Abstract

    The most widely accepted empirical dividend model is that proposed by Lintner, who argued that firms smooth dividends over time. Many theoretical dividend models, however, either predict that dividends should be highly variable, or at least offer no support for the smoothing hypothesis. We use a switching regression model to test the Lintner model against an alternative which allows dividend behavior to differ depending upon whether or not firms are issuing shares. We reject the Lintner model, finding no evidence of dividend smoothing when firms are not issuing shares, and a high negative dividend growth rate when firms are issuing shares. This description of dividend behavior suggests the existence of a financing hierarchy in that the marginal source of finance differs over time. To further explore the financing hierarchy, we estimate logit models which explain the decisions by firms to change dividends, and to issue or repurchase shares. The results are consistent with the existence of a financing hierarchy.

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    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w2029.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 2029.

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    Date of creation: Sep 1986
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    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2029

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    1. Baxter, Nevins D & Cragg, John G, 1970. "Corporate Choice Among Long-Term Financing Instruments," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(3), pages 225-35, August.
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    Cited by:
    1. Chemmanur, Thomas J. & He, Jie & Hu, Gang & Liu, Helen, 2010. "Is dividend smoothing universal?: New insights from a comparative study of dividend policies in Hong Kong and the U.S," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 413-430, September.

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