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A Century of Capital Structure: The Leveraging of Corporate America

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  • John Graham
  • Mark T. Leary
  • Michael R. Roberts

Abstract

Unregulated U.S. corporations dramatically increased their debt usage over the past century. Aggregate leverage – low and stable before 1945 – more than tripled between 1945 and 1970 from 11% to 35%, eventually reaching 47% by the early 1990s. The median firm in 1946 had no debt, but by 1970 had a leverage ratio of 31%. This increase occurred in all unregulated industries and affected firms of all sizes. Changing firm characteristics are unable to account for this increase. Rather, changes in government borrowing, macroeconomic uncertainty, and financial sector development play a more prominent role. Despite this increase among unregulated firms, a combination of stable debt usage among regulated firms and a decrease in the fraction of aggregate assets held by regulated firms over this period resulted in a relatively stable economy-wide leverage ratio during the 20th century.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 19910.

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Date of creation: Feb 2014
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Publication status: Forthcoming: A Century of Capital Structure: The Leveraging of Corporate America , John R. Graham, Mark T. Leary, Michael R. Roberts. in Understanding the Capital Structures of Non-Financial and Financial Corporations , Acharya, Almeida, and Baker. 2014
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19910

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Cited by:
  1. Francis A. Longstaff & Ilya A. Strebulaev, 2014. "Corporate Taxes and Capital Structure: A Long-Term Historical Perspective," NBER Working Papers 20372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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