The Supply of Gender Stereotypes and Discriminatory Beliefs
AbstractWhat determines beliefs about the ability and appropriate role of women? An overwhelming majority of men and women born early in the 20th century thought women should not work; a majority now believes that work is appropriate for both genders. Betty Friedan (1963) postulated that beliefs about gender were formed by consumer good producers, but a simple model suggests that such firms would only have the incentive to supply error, when mass persuasion is cheap, when their products complement women’s time in the household, and when individual producers have significant market power. Such conditions seem unlikely to be universal, or even common, but gender stereotypes have a long history. To explain that history, we turn to a second model where parents perpetuate beliefs out of a desire to encourage the production of grandchildren. Undersupply of female education will encourage daughters’ fertility, directly by reducing the opportunity cost of their time and indirectly by leading daughters to believe that they are less capable. Children will be particularly susceptible to persuasion if they overestimate their parents’ altruism toward themselves. The supply of persuasion will diminish if women work before childbearing, which may explain why gender-related beliefs changed radically among generations born in the 1940s.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 19109.
Date of creation: Jun 2013
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Edward L. Glaeser, Yueran Ma. "The Supply of Gender Stereotypes and Discriminatory Beliefs," in Leah P. Boustan, Carola Frydman, and Robert A. Margo, editors, "Human Capital in History: The American Record" University of Chicago Press (2013)
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
- Edward L. Glaeser & Yueran Ma, 2013. "The Supply of Gender Stereotypes and Discriminatory Beliefs," NBER Chapters, in: Human Capital in History: The American Record National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-06-16 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2013-06-16 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-LTV-2013-06-16 (Unemployment, Inequality & Poverty)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Glaeser, Edward L. & Ujhelyi, Gergely, 2010.
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 94(3-4), pages 247-257, April.
- Francine D. Blau & Peter Brummund & Albert Yung-Hsu Liu, 2012.
"Trends in Occupational Segregation by Gender 1970-2009: Adjusting for the Impact of Changes in the Occupational Coding System,"
NBER Working Papers
17993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francine Blau & Peter Brummund & Albert Liu, 2013. "Trends in Occupational Segregation by Gender 1970–2009: Adjusting for the Impact of Changes in the Occupational Coding System," Demography, Springer, vol. 50(2), pages 471-492, April.
- Blau, Francine D. & Brummund, Peter & Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu, 2012. "Trends in Occupational Segregation by Gender 1970-2009: Adjusting for the Impact of Changes in the Occupational Coding System," IZA Discussion Papers 6490, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Claudia Goldin, 2006.
"The Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family,"
NBER Working Papers
11953, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Claudia Goldin, 2006. "The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 1-21, May.
- Margo, Robert A, 1991.
"Segregated Schools and the Mobility Hypothesis: A Model of Local Government Discrimination,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 106(1), pages 61-73, February.
- Robert A. Margo, 1990. "Segregated Schools and the Mobility Hypothesis: A Model of Local Government Discrimination," NBER Historical Working Papers 0017, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Claudia Goldin, 1990.
"Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women,"
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gold90-1.
- Goldin, Claudia, 1992. "Understanding the Gender Gap: An Economic History of American Women," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195072709.
- Goldin, Claudia, 2006. "The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Womenâ€™s Employment, Education, and Family," Scholarly Articles 2943933, Harvard University Department of Economics.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.