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Racial Residential Segregation in American Cities

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  • Leah Platt Boustan

Abstract

This chapter examines the causes and consequences of black-white residential segregation in the United States. Segregation can arise through black self-segregation, collective action to exclude blacks from white neighborhoods, or individual mobility of white households. Historically, whites used racially restrictive covenants and violence to exclude blacks from white areas. More recently, white departures from integrated neighborhoods is a more important factor. Many studies find that blacks who live in segregated metropolitan areas have lower educational attainment and lower earnings than their counterparts in more integrated areas. This difference appears to reflect the causal effect of segregation on economic outcomes. The association between segregated environments and minority disadvantage is driven in part by physical isolation of black neighborhoods from employment opportunities and in part by harmful social interactions within black neighborhoods, especially due to concentrated poverty. The chapter ends by reviewing potential policy solutions to residential segregation, which can be classified as place-based, people-based, or indirect solutions.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 19045.

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Date of creation: May 2013
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19045

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References

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  1. Holzer, Harry J. & Quigley, John M. & Raphael, Steven, 2004. "Public Transit and the Spatial Distribution of Minority Employment: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy qt0f3725dm, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.
  2. Leah Platt Boustan, 2012. "School Desegregation and Urban Change: Evidence from City Boundaries," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 85-108, January.
  3. Ondrich, Jan & Stricker, Alex & Yinger, John, 1999. "Do Landlords Discriminate? The Incidence and Causes of Racial Discrimination in Rental Housing Markets," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 185-204, September.
  4. Patrick Bayer & Fernando Ferreira & Robert McMillan, 2007. "A Unified Framework for Measuring Preferences for Schools and Neighborhoods," NBER Working Papers 13236, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Maisy Wong, 2013. "Estimating Ethnic Preferences Using Ethnic Housing Quotas in Singapore," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(3), pages 1178-1214.
  6. Steven Raphael & Michael A. Stoll, 2000. "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps," JCPR Working Papers, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research 200, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
  7. Weinberg, Bruce A., 2000. "Black Residential Centralization and the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 110-134, July.
  8. Collins, William J., 2004. "The housing market impact of state-level anti-discrimination laws, 1960-1970," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 534-564, May.
  9. Michael A. Stoll, 2006. "Job sprawl, spatial mismatch, and black employment disadvantage," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(4), pages 827-854.
  10. Christopher J. Mayer & Karen Pence, 2008. "Subprime Mortgages: What, Where, and to Whom?," NBER Working Papers 14083, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Munnell, Alicia H. & Geoffrey M. B. Tootell & Lynn E. Browne & James McEneaney, 1996. "Mortgage Lending in Boston: Interpreting HMDA Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 25-53, March.
  12. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R. & Scafidi, Benjamin, 2002. "Black Self-Segregation as a Cause of Housing Segregation: Evidence from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 366-390, March.
  13. Chris Mayer & Karen Pence, 2008. "Subprime mortgages: what, where, and to whom?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) 2008-29, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  14. Kevin Fox Gotham, 2000. "Urban Space, Restrictive Covenants and the Origins of Racial Residential Segregation in a US City, 1900-50," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 616-633, 09.
  15. Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat, 2007. "The Wrong Side(s) of the Tracks Estimating the Causal Effects of Racial Segregation on City Outcomes," NBER Working Papers 13343, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Wong, Maisy, 2013. "Estimating the Distortionary Effects of Ethnic Quotas in Singapore Using Housing Transactions," MPRA Paper 51217, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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