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The Dollar as an Irrational Speculative Bubble: A Tale of Fundamentalisists

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  • Jeffrey A. Frankel
  • Kenneth A. Froot

Abstract

Several recent developments have inspired us to consider a non-standard model of the dollar as a speculative bubble without the constraint of fully rational expectations: (1) the dollar continued to rise in 1984 after real interest rate differentials and other fundamentals began moving the wrong way; (2) the results of market efficiency tests imply, that the rationally expected rate of dollar depreciation has been less than the forward discount; (3) Krugman-Marris current account calculations suggest that the rationally expected rate of depreciation is greater than the forward discount; (4) survey data show an expected rate of depreciation that is also greater than the forward discount; (5) the hypothesis of a "safe-haven" shift into U.S. assets and a decrease in the U.S. risk premium, which would explain some of the foregoing, is contradicted by a decline in the differential between off shore interest rates (covered) and U.S. interest rates. Our model features three classes of actors: fundamentalists, chartists and portfolio managers. Fundamentalists forecast a depreciation of the dollar based on an overshooting model that would be rational if there were no chartists. Chartists extrapolate recent trends based on an information set that includes no fundamentals. Portfolio managers take positions in the market, and thus determine the exchange rate, based on expectations that area weighted average of the fundamentalists and chartists. The first stage of the dollar appreciation after 1980 is explained by increases in real interest differentials. The second stage is explained by the endogenous takeoff of a speculative bubble when the fundamentalists have mis-forecast for so long that they have lost credibility. In 1985, the dollar may have entered a third stage in which an ever-worsening current account deficit begins a reversal of the bubble.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 1854.

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Date of creation: Mar 1986
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Publication status: published as From The Marcus Wallenberg Papers on International Finance, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 27-55, (1986).
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1854

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References

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  1. Hodrick, Robert J. & Srivastava, Sanjay, 1984. "An investigation of risk and return in forward foreign exchange," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 5-29, April.
  2. Maurice Obstfeld, 1985. "Floating Exchange Rates: Experience and Prospects," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 16(2), pages 369-464.
  3. Kouri, Pentti J K, 1976. " The Exchange Rate and the Balance of Payments in the Short Run and in the Long Run: A Monetary Approach," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 78(2), pages 280-304.
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  5. Meese, Richard A. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1983. "Empirical exchange rate models of the seventies : Do they fit out of sample?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1-2), pages 3-24, February.
  6. Robert E. Cumby & Maurice Obstfeld, 1982. "International Interest-Rate and Price-Level Linkages Under Flexible Exchange Rates: A Review of Recent Evidence," NBER Working Papers 0921, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Paul R. Krugman, 1985. "Is the strong dollar sustainable?," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 103-155.
  8. Longworth, David, 1981. "Testing the Efficiency of the Canadian-U.S. Exchange Market under the Assumption of no Risk Premium," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(1), pages 43-49, March.
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  18. Rodriguez, Carlos Alfredo, 1980. "The Role of Trade Flows in Exchange Rate Determination: A Rational Expectations Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(6), pages 1148-58, December.
  19. Robert J. Shiller, 1984. "Stock Prices and Social Dynamics," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 15(2), pages 457-510.
  20. Friend, Irwin & Blume, Marshall E, 1975. "The Demand for Risky Assets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(5), pages 900-922, December.
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  23. Arnold S. Kling, 1985. "Anticipatory capital flows and the behaviour of the dollar," International Finance Discussion Papers 261, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  24. Mussa, Michael, 1976. " The Exchange Rate, the Balance of Payments and Monetary and Fiscal Policy under a Regime of Controlled Floating," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 78(2), pages 229-48.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Dominguez, Kathryn & Frankel, Jeffrey A., 1990. "Does Foreign Exchange Intervention Matter? Disentangling the Portfolio an Expectations Effects for the Mark," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt84c522k9, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  2. Alfarano, Simone & Lux, Thomas, 2005. "A noise trader model as a generator of apparent financial power laws and long memory," Economics Working Papers 2005,13, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  3. Alfarano, Simone & Lux, Thomas, 2003. "A minimal noise trader model with realistic time series properties," Economics Working Papers 2003,15, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  4. Paul Grauwe & Hans Dewachter, 1993. "A chaotic model of the exchange rate: The role of fundamentalists and chartists," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 351-379, December.
  5. Michel Beine & Agnès Bénassy-Quéré & Hélène Colas, 2003. "Imitation Amongst Exchange-Rate Forecasters: Evidence from Survey Data," THEMA Working Papers 2003-39, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
  6. Helliwell, John F., 1988. "Pour une vision à long terme de la coopération économique internationale," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 64(3), pages 313-335, septembre.
  7. Benassy-Quere, Agnes & Larribeau, Sophie & MacDonald, Ronald, 2003. "Models of exchange rate expectations: how much heterogeneity?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 113-136, April.
  8. Rubaszek, Michal, 2005. "Fundamental equilibrium exchange rate for the Polish zloty," MPRA Paper 126, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Vitale, P., 1997. "Speculative Noise Trading and Manipulation in the Foreign Exchange Market," Economics Working Papers eco97/23, European University Institute.
  10. Agnès Bénassy-Quéré & Sophie Larribeau & Ronald MacDonald, 1999. "Models of Exchange Rate Expectations: Heterogeneous Evidence from Panel Data," Working Papers 1999-03, CEPII research center.
  11. Paul De Grauwe & Marianna Grimaldi, 2003. "Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market in a Model with Noise Traders," Working Papers 162003, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  12. Kenneth A. Froot & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1989. "Interpreting Tests of Forward Discount Bias Using Survey Data on Exchange Rate Expectations," NBER Working Papers 1963, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Fernando Fernández-Rodríguez & Simón Sosvilla-Rivero & Julián Andrada-Félix, . "Nearest-Neighbour Predictions in Foreign Exchange Markets," Working Papers 2002-05, FEDEA.
  14. Bühler, Wolfgang & Kempf, Alexander, 1994. "The value of the early unwind option in futures contracts with an endogenous basis," ZEW Discussion Papers 94-06, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  15. Juann H. Hung, 1995. "Intervention strategies and exchange rate volatility: a noise trading perspective," Research Paper 9515, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

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