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Capital Inflows, Exchange Rate Flexibility, and Credit Booms

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  • Nicolas E. Magud
  • Carmen M. Reinhart
  • Esteban R. Vesperoni

Abstract

The prospects of expansionary monetary policies in the advanced countries for the foreseeable future have renewed the debate over policy options to cope with large capital inflows that are, at least partly, driven by low interest rates in the financial centers. Historically, capital flow bonanzas have often fueled sharp credit expansions in advanced and emerging market economies alike. Focusing primarily on emerging markets, we analyze the impact of exchange rate flexibility on credit markets during periods of large capital inflows. We show that credit grows more rapidly and its composition tilts to foreign currency in economies with less flexible exchange rate regimes, and that these results are not explained entirely by the fact that the latter attract more capital inflows than economies with more flexible regimes. Our findings thus suggest countries with less flexible exchange rate regimes may stand to benefit the most from regulatory policies that reduce banks’ incentives to tap external markets and to lend/borrow in foreign currency; these policies include marginal reserve requirements on foreign lending, currency-dependent liquidity requirements, and higher capital requirement and/or dynamic provisioning on foreign exchange loans.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 17670.

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Date of creation: Dec 2011
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:17670

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  1. Reinhart, Carmen & Reinhart, Vincent, 2008. "Capital Flow Bonanzas: An Encompassing View of the Past and Present," CEPR Discussion Papers 6996, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Stefan Nagel & Lasse H. Pedersen, 2008. "Carry Trades and Currency Crashes," NBER Working Papers 14473, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Atish R. Ghosh & Anne-Marie Gulde & Holger C. Wolf, 2003. "Exchange Rate Regimes: Choices and Consequences," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262072408, December.
  4. Nicolas E. Magud E. & Carmen M. & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2011. "Capital Controls: Myth and Reality--A Portfolio Balance Approach," Working Paper Series WP11-7, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  5. Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & Montiel, Peter J, 1996. "The Surge in Capital Inflows to Developing Countries: An Analytical Overview," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 51-77, January.
  6. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2004. "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 119(1), pages 1-48, February.
  7. Graciela L. Kaminsky & Carmen M. Reinhart & Carlos A. Vegh, 2004. "When it Rains, it Pours: Procyclical Capital Flows and Macroeconomic Policies," NBER Working Papers 10780, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas & Maurice Obstfeld, 2012. "Stories of the Twentieth Century for the Twenty-First," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 226-65, January.
  9. Atish R. Ghosh & Jonathan David Ostry & Charalambos G. Tsangarides, 2011. "Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System," IMF Occasional Papers 270, International Monetary Fund.
  10. Enrique G. Mendoza & Marco E. Terrones, 2008. "An anatomy of credit booms: evidence from macro aggregates and micro data," International Finance Discussion Papers 936, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. International Monetary Fund, 2011. "Macroprudential Policy," IMF Working Papers 11/238, International Monetary Fund.
  12. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 8973.
  13. International Monetary Fund, 2011. "Policy Instruments to Lean Against the Wind in Latin America," IMF Working Papers 11/159, International Monetary Fund.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Claessens, Stijn & Kose, Ayhan, 2013. "Financial Crises: Explanations, Types, and Implications," CEPR Discussion Papers 9329, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Reinhart, Carmen, 2012. "Capital Inflows, Credit Booms and Their Risks," MPRA Paper 50981, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Marco Terrones & Enrique Mendoza, 2013. "Anatomy of credit booms and their demise," 2013 Meeting Papers 649, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  4. Gregorio Impavido & Heinz Rudolph & Luigi Ruggerone, 2013. "Bank Funding in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe Post Lehman," IMF Working Papers 13/148, International Monetary Fund.
  5. Gozgor, Giray, 2014. "Determinants of domestic credit levels in emerging markets: The role of external factors," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 1-18.
  6. Stefan Avdjiev & Robert McCauley & Patrick McGuire, 2012. "Rapid credit growth and international credit: Challenges for Asia," BIS Working Papers 377, Bank for International Settlements.
  7. Castroa, Vitor & Kubota, Megumi, 2013. "Duration dependence and change-points in the likelihood of credit booms ending," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6475, The World Bank.
  8. Enrique G. Mendoza & Marco E. Terrones, 2012. "An Anatomy of Credits Booms and their Demise," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 15(2), pages 04-32, August.
  9. Calderon, Cesar & Kubota, Megumi, 2012. "Gross inflows gone wild : gross capital inflows, credit booms and crises," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6270, The World Bank.
  10. Reinout De Bock & Alexander Demyanets, 2012. "Bank Asset Quality in Emerging Markets," IMF Working Papers 12/71, International Monetary Fund.
  11. Nicolas E. Magud & Evridiki Tsounta, 2012. "To Cut or Not to Cut? That is the (Central Bank’s) Question In Search of the Neutral Interest Rate in Latin America," IMF Working Papers 12/243, International Monetary Fund.
  12. Eduardo Olaberría, 2012. "Capital Inflows and Booms in Assets Prices: Evidence From a Panel of Countries," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 675, Central Bank of Chile.
  13. Atish R. Ghosh & Jonathan David Ostry & Mahvash Saeed Qureshi, 2014. "Exchange Rate Management and Crisis Susceptibility: A Reassessment," IMF Working Papers 14/11, International Monetary Fund.

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